Einstein’s general theory of relativity greatly changed our view of basic concepts in physics (such as time and space). But this also left us a deep mystery. One of them is a black hole, which was only clearly discovered in the past few years. The other is the “wormhole”-a bridge connecting different points in time and space, theoretically providing a shortcut for space travelers.
Wormholes still exist in the imagination. But some scientists think that we can also find them soon. In the past few months, a number of new studies have suggested interesting directions.
Black holes and wormholes are special types of solutions to Einstein̵
Since this theory allows the structure of time and space to be stretched and bent, various possible configurations can be imagined. In 1935, Einstein and the physicist Nathan Rosen (Nathan Rosen) described how to combine two space-times to build a bridge between the two universes. This is a kind of wormhole-since then, people have thought of many other bugs.
Some wormholes may be “traversable”, which means that humans may be able to pass through them. For this, they will need to be large enough and resist gravity to open them, thereby attempting to close them. Pushing space-time outward in this way will require a lot of “negative energy.”
Does it sound like science fiction? We know that negative energy exists, and a small amount has been produced in the laboratory. We also know that negative energy is the reason for the accelerated expansion of the universe. Therefore, nature may have found a way to make wormholes.
Find a wormhole in the sky
How can we prove that wormholes exist? In a new paper published in “Monthly of the Royal Society”, Russian astronomers suggested that they may exist in the center of some very bright galaxies and proposed some observations to find them. This is based on what happens if the material coming out of one side of the wormhole collides with the falling material. Calculations indicate that the collision will result in a spectacular gamma-ray display, which we can try to observe with a telescope.
This radiation may be the key to distinguishing wormholes and black holes, which were previously thought to be indistinguishable from the outside world. But a black hole should produce fewer gamma rays and shoot them out in a jet, and the radiation generated through the wormhole will be confined in a huge sphere. Although the wormhole considered in this study can be traversed, it will not bring a pleasant journey. Because it will be very close to the center of an active galaxy, the high temperature will burn everything to pieces. But this is not the case with all wormholes, such as wormholes far from the center of the Milky Way.
The idea that galaxies can hide wormholes in their centers is not new. Take the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way as an example. This was discovered by painstakingly tracking the orbits of stars near the black hole. This is a major achievement and won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2020. But a recent paper showed that this kind of gravity may be caused by wormholes.
Unlike black holes, wormholes may “leak” some gravity from objects on the other side. This weird gravitational effect will have a slight reaction to the motion of stars near the center of the Milky Way. According to this research, once the sensitivity of our instrument increases a little, the specific effects observed in the near future should be measurable.
Coincidentally, another recent study reported the discovery of some “odd radio circles” in the sky. These circles are weird because they are large, but they are not associated with any visible objects. Currently, they do not conform to any conventional interpretations, so wormholes have become a possible cause.
A jar of worms
Wormholes have firmly captured our collective imagination. In a sense, they are a pleasant form of escaping from reality. Unlike black holes, black holes can be a little scary when capturing all adventures, and wormholes may allow us to reach faraway places faster than the speed of light. In fact, they may even be time machines, providing a way to move backwards-as the late Stephen Hawking suggested in his final book.
Wormholes also appear in quantum physics, which rules the world of atoms and particles. According to quantum mechanics, particles can be ejected from empty space, but disappear after a moment. This has been seen in countless experiments. If particles can be produced, why not wormholes? Physicists believe that wormholes may be formed by a bubble of quantum particles that suddenly appeared in the universe. Some of these “primitive wormholes” may still exist.
Recent experiments on “quantum teleportation” (a transfer of quantum information “invisibly” from one location to another) have proven to be very similar to the work of two black holes connected by wormholes. These experiments seem to solve the “quantum information paradox,” which suggests that physical information may disappear permanently in the black hole. However, they also reveal a deep connection between the well-known incompatible quantum physics theories and gravity. Wormholes are related to both, which may be very helpful in constructing the “theory of everything.”
The fact that wormholes played a role in these fascinating developments is unlikely to be overlooked. We may not see them, but they can definitely be there. They can even help us understand some of the deepest mysteries of the universe, such as whether our universe is unique.
How to view the other side of the wormhole without going through the wormhole
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Citation: Wormholes may be lurking in the universe. New research has proposed a method to find wormholes (January 13, 2021). The method is from https://phys.org/news/2021 from January 13, 2021. -01-wormholes-lurking-universeand-ways.html retrieved
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