Fifty-one independent elections —One in each state and one in Washington, DC. Each has different rules and regulations, and there is no national election commission to tell the world who wins. So, how to quickly and accurately determine who won the highest position on the land?
Since the Associated Press announced the election of Zachary Taylor as president in 1848, the news media has entered this field.
The Electoral College is actually a president elected in accordance with the U.S. Constitution, and its process begins with a referendum in the entire Republic. But its work takes several weeks. In the strange vacuum created by the federal system, in the 1
Many people, including President Donald Trump, seem to be surprised these days. After the Associated Press and major U.S. television networks held a presidential campaign for the Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden, Trump tweeted: Since when did the media “call for the next president?”
This is how the system looks.
Expectations for election results on that day are modern, as is the concept of an election day.
Harvard University voting rights expert Alex Keyssar said that the founding fathers designed the Electoral College-a series of state elections to elect the president-partly because maintaining power in the states ensures that certain The only way for these states to approve the constitution. . He said that since the Civil War, politicians in rural areas, especially in the South, have been opposed to surrendering any voting rights to the federal government.
In the early days of American history, elections were held for many days, and not all states voted on the same day. David Greenberg, a professor of history and journalism at Rutgers University, said that it was the appearance of the telegraph (causing concerns that one state might affect another) that led to a presidential election day.
Once the presidential election is over, each state will choose its representatives to participate in the electoral college-the number depends on the size of each state’s population and the number of representatives and senators in Congress. The delegates who swore to vote for the candidate with the most votes in the state did not vote until December 14.
The President of the Senate and the archivist must receive a certificate recording the election results by the fourth Wednesday of December (December 23 this year). The electoral vote results of each state are then sent to the newly elected Congress, which is set to meet the joint meeting on January 6, and announce the results.
The role of the media
It developed from the instinct to report the news, but mainly because Americans did not want to wait until mid-December to know the results.
Rick Edmonds, a media business analyst at the Poynter Media Institute, said that in the face of the reality of a decentralized government structure, no one except the media is willing to bear the cost of voting on the list. The Federal Election Commission regulates certain aspects of the election, but does not list the votes. Therefore, there is still a vacuum between the results of each state and the collective decision-making of the country.
The job of the Associated Press was to collect vote counts and analyze data before the Civil War. The American television network started its own analysis in the 1960 game between Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy, checking the data and referring to the winners one state at a time.
This year’s work has been complicated by the coronavirus pandemic. People choose to vote early or vote by mail, which has resulted in slower votes in some states. In many states, the competition is also close, which makes the determination of the winner slower. Major networks and the Associated Press held a presidential campaign on Saturday four days after election day.
How the race is called
The Associated Press uses a “stringer” network of freelancers in 50 states who collect votes from county clerks and other local officials. Other Associated Press reporters collected results from state or county websites and state electronic data feeds.
News organizations around the world that accept AP use this count to report results. At the same time, state-level analysts and editors of the Associated Press Policy Bureau looked at the number of votes, combined with demographic data, voting history and statistics about early voting to conduct research to announce the winner.
On Saturday morning, the Associated Press announced Democrat Joe Biden as the winner After confirming that he won the Pennsylvania game, this allowed him to exceed the required 270 electoral votes. Major TV networks in the United States use AP votes or other votes to compete in roughly the same process.
Keyssar said: “The advantage of letting the freedom of the press do this is that, at least in theory, the freedom of the press is free and independent.” “But it has no official status, so its conclusions are not binding on anyone. As we said. That way, this caused confusion.”
No one else is making any major efforts.
What if it is wrong?
Errors and glitches have occurred.
In 1948, “Chicago Daily Tribune” was famous for “Dewey defeated Truman” On the front page of the first edition, when the early numbers made it look like Thomas Dewey was leading. But the tide turned, and President Harry S. Truman defeated the polls with a frustrating victory.
In 2000, major television networks and the Associated Press called Florida to become the Democrat Gore, relying mainly on election day voting. After counting the votes, everyone changed direction. The Internet announced that Republican George W. Bush owned the state, but the decision was later withdrawn. The Associated Press postponed the second call, believing that the game was too close.More than a month later, the U.S. Supreme Court ended the recount 5 to 4 and locked Bush’s minor victory system.
The Trump campaign vowed to challenge Biden’s victory in court. On Monday, Attorney General William Barr authorized federal prosecutors across the United States to make “substantial charges” (if any) of voting misconduct before the election college certifies that the election is passed. His memo did not reveal the specific circumstances of the suspected fraud.
AP’s decision board Associated Press executive editor Sally Buzbee (Sally Buzbee) said that legal challenges and disputes should be considered when determining whether the game can be played safely.
Trump lawyer Rudy Giuliani held a press conference in Philadelphia on Saturday to discuss fraud allegations when he learned that the Associated Press and other networks were calling for Biden to run. He pointed out that the media has no formal role in deciding who becomes the president of the United States.
It is true. But Edmunds said that he hopes the game routine will continue. He said that it is deeply rooted, and although he believes that news organizations can improve the method, “I don’t see a situation where the system is not working properly.”