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“Weirder than fiction”-the weirdness of the supermassive black hole in the Milky Way



Unlike the iconic huge black hole now, the size of our solar system is located at the center of the nearby elliptical galaxy M87, and its huge jet explodes at a speed close to the speed of light, while the central black hole of the Milky Way SgrA *until May, 201

9, when it suddenly When brightened, it looks like a huge dormant volcano, a sleeping monster, a sleeping space-time region, and gravity is so strong that “whatever enters it will not come out” – according to new research, the jet does not Reduce rotation, “Prove to be stranger than science fiction.”

Theoretical basis

Reinhard Genzel of the University of California, Berkeley and Andrea Ghez of the University of California, Los Angeles have won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics on the basis of breakthrough research. Our galaxy SgrA* is a black hole. “Since the early 1990s, everyone has led a team of astronomers focused on the Sagittarius A* zone in the center of the Milky Way. The orbits of the brightest stars closest to the middle of the Milky Way have been mapped with greater precision. This The measurement results of the two groups were consistent, and both found a very heavy, invisible object, which pulled the chaos of stars, causing them to run at a vertigo speed. In an area not exceeding our solar system, there are about four million The masses of the sun gather together.”

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Near light velocity jet

This near-light speed of the M87s jet is called superluminal motion, and it is captured by the Chandra X-ray Observatory captured images of the material ejected from the jet between 2012 and 2017, which is hundreds of thousands of years old. The previous emission from the black hole occurs when an object travels close to the speed of light in a direction close to our line of sight. The speed of the jet towards us is almost the same as the speed of light it produces, giving people the illusion that the jet is moving much faster than the speed of light. In the case of M87*, the jet is pointed in our direction, causing these abnormal apparent speeds.

M87 black hole jet

Two key numbers-quality and spin

The latest research by the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) and Interdisciplinary Center of Harvard University has shown that supermassive black holes like SgrA* have only two numbers: mass and spin, which have a crucial influence on the formation and evolution of galaxies. Northwestern University Astrophysics Exploration and Research (CIERA). Harvard University science professor and CfA astronomer Avi Loeb said he was a co-author of the study. “Black holes release a lot of energy, removing energy from galaxies, thereby changing their star formation history.”

Although scientists know that the mass of the central black hole has a crucial influence on its host galaxy, it is not easy to measure the influence of its spin. As Loeb said, “The effect of black hole rotation on the orbits of nearby stars is subtle and difficult to measure directly.”

Genzel and Ghez monitored the movement of stars around SgrA*. Loeb said. “They measured its mass but not its rotation. We arrived at the first strict limit of SgrA* rotation,” he added, without the original Nobel Prize winning works of Genzel and Ghez, this discovery would be impossible.

In order to better understand how SgrA* affects the formation and evolution of the Milky Way, Dr. Loeb and Giacomo Fragione of CIERA studied the stellar orbit and spatial distribution of the S star, that is, the closest star that SgrA* orbits at as high as the speed of light. The speed of a few to restrict or limit the rotation of the black hole.

Fragione said: “We have concluded that the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way is slowly rotating.” “This may have a significant impact on the detectability of the center of our Milky Way and future observations by the Event Horizon Telescope.”

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S-Stars display

S-Stars seem to be organized into two preferred aircraft. Loeb and Fragione showed that if SgrA* has a significant spin, the preferred orbital plane of the star at birth will become misaligned by now. “In our research, we used the recently discovered S star to prove that the spin of the black hole SgrA* must be less than 10% of its maximum value, which corresponds to a black hole rotating at the speed of light.” Loeb “Otherwise, it’s like As seen today, the common orbital planes of these stars will not remain aligned during their lifetime.”

Jet as a giant flywheel

The findings also pointed out another important detail about SgrA*: it is unlikely to have a jet. Loeb said: “The jet is thought to be driven by a rotating black hole, which is like a giant flywheel,” Fregionet added. “In fact, there is no evidence of jet activity in SgrA*. The upcoming data analysis of the Event Horizon Telescope will provide more insights on this issue.”

Source: “The upper limit of SgrA spin based on the orbit of nearby stars,” G. Fragione and A. Loeb, Astrophysical Journal Letters.

“Daily Galaxy”, Max Goldberg, through the Harvard University Friendship Association and the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics

Image source: Shutterstock license




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