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Home / Science / Time and space ripples clues to missing parts of the universe

Time and space ripples clues to missing parts of the universe



Time and space ripple concept

University of Chicago The scientist proposed how Ligao Gravitational waves May be disrupted and generate information.

Our theory of the universe has some shortcomings. Almost everything is suitable, but there are flies in the cosmic ointment and sand in the infinite sandwich. Some scientists believe that the culprit may be the subtle ripples in the gravity-space-time structure that can help us find the missing parts.

A new paper co-authored by a scientist at the University of Chicago explains how this might work. The method was published in Physical Review D on December 21. The method depends on finding ripples that have been bent when they reach the Earth through supermassive black holes or large galaxies.

The problem is that something not only causes the universe to expand, but as time goes by faster and faster, no one knows what it is. (Finding the exact rate is an ongoing debate in the cosmology community).

Scientists have proposed various theories to solve the missing parts. The co-author of the paper Jose María Ezquiaga (Jose María Ezquiaga) NASA Einstein postdoctoral fellow at the Kavli Institute for Cosmophysics, University of Chicago. “Therefore, gravitational waves are ideal messengers to observe these possible changes in gravity (if any).”

“Gravitational waves are the ideal messenger for observing these possible changes in gravity, if they exist.”

Astrophysicist Jose Maria Ezquiaga

Gravitational waves are the pulsations of space-time itself. Since 2015, humans have been able to use the LIGO observatory to discover these ripples. Whenever two huge weights collide with other places in the universe, they will produce a ripple that propagates in space, with the characteristics of any creation-it may be the collision of two black holes or two neutron stars.

Merged black hole gravitational waves

Supercomputer simulation of gravitational waves emitted by merged black holes. Scientists believe that there may be a way to use these waves to find fragments that are missing in our understanding of the universe.Image Credit: Chris Henze/NASA Illustration

In the paper, Ezquiaga and co-author Miguel Zumalácarregui believe that if such a wave hits a supermass Black hole Or the galaxy cluster will change its characteristics on the way to the earth. If there is a difference in gravity compared to Einstein’s theory, the evidence will be embedded in the signature.

For example, one theory about the missing part of the universe is that there are extra particles. Among other effects, such particles can create a background or “medium” around large objects. If a traveling gravitational wave hits a supermassive black hole, it will produce a wave that is mixed with the gravitational wave itself. Depending on the situation encountered, the gravitational wave signature may have “echoes” or disturbances.

Ezquiaga said: “This is a new way to explore solutions that could not be tested before.”

Wave blending animation

The waves merge and create a unique new signature illustration. Image credit: Ezquiaga and Zumalácarregui

Their paper proposes how to find the conditions for this effect in future data. The next operation of LIGO is planned to start in 2022 and will be upgraded to make the detector more sensitive than before.

“In the last observation with LIGO, we saw new gravitational wave readings every six days, which is really surprising. But throughout the universe, we think they actually happen every five minutes.” Ezquiaga said. “In the next upgrade, we can see many of these events-hundreds of events every year.”

He said that the increase in number makes it more likely that one or more waves will pass through a huge object, and scientists will be able to analyze it to find clues about missing components.

Reference: Jose María Ezquiaga and Miguel Zumalacárregui’s “Gravitational Wave Lens Beyond General Relativity: Birefringence, Echoes and Shadows”, December 21, 2020 day, Physical Examination D.
DOI: 10.1103 / PhysRevD.102.124048

The other author of the paper, Zumalácarregui, is the German Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics and the Berkeley Center for Cosmophysics at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and UC Berkeley.

Funding source: NASA, Cavley Foundation.




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