Ultra-high-resolution simulations of a small part of the universe (one million times smaller than a proton) revealed the earliest structure ever. These dense structures are strange.
After the first trillionth of a second big Bang, The universe is a hot place, heated by more than one trillion degrees. Although scientists cannot observe this moment in time, they can reconstruct it using powerful computer simulation techniques.
The new simulation is more detailed than ever before, and it shows how gravity causes quantum particles called dilatants to cluster together in the initial situation. The results show for the first time how these clumps form complex and dense structures that weigh a few grams to 20 kilograms (heavier than stamps, but lighter than Bulldogs) and are filled into spaces smaller than elementary particles.
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The simulation is the first to show enough detail that scientists can decipher the size and shape range of these infant structures. The co-author of the study, Richard Easther, a professor of physics at the University of Auckland, said that in addition, the results perfectly match the simple theoretical model of nearly 40 years.
“We discovered this extremely complex stage in the very early universe, and this has only just begun to be understood correctly.”
The simulation models the time when inflation ends, which is the period of massive expansion of the universe. At that time, the universe only contained energy and expanders-a kind of quantum matter formed by the energy field of matter, which filled all the space after the Big Bang.
Physicists believe that the inflatable structure seen in the simulation was produced by the fluctuation of the energy field immediately after the Big Bang. The same field may have created a large-scale galactic structure billions of light years in the universe today.
The dense gas-filled substructures seen in the simulation may not last long, because they are likely to become elementary particles within a fraction of a second. However, due to their high density-reaching 100,000 times the density of the surrounding space-their motion and interaction may produce ripples in the space-time structure called gravitational waves. The new simulation will help scientists accurately calculate the size of those gravity waves, which will help future experiments to find similar ripples in the universe.
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These small clumps may also collapse due to their own weight, forming the first black hole in the universe, called a primordial black hole. Some scientists believe that such black holes may be candidates for dark matter. Dark matter is a mysterious matter that no one can directly see, but it constitutes 85% of the matter in the universe today. The physicists did not see any black holes in their simulations, but they plan to run longer and more detailed simulations to show such objects in the future.
Easther wrote in an email to Live Science: “Primitive black holes are an interesting possibility at this point-they may lead to new behaviors, but they will also provide new processing methods for test models.” Because of some primitives Black holes should exist in today’s universe, so finding a black hole can help verify scientists’ models of these early moments in the universe.
Easther and his colleagues published a paper describing simulation in Physical Review D on March 22.
Originally published on life sciences.