From the cultivation of crops in space to the service of self-driving robots on the road, this year has witnessed some truly revolutionary advances in the field of science and technology.
As the new year approaches, here are the most interesting scientific discoveries and technological achievements of 2020:
The vaccine is here!
The vaccines against Covid-1
The Pfizer vaccine has shown 95% efficacy in preventing symptomatic Covid infection. The Moderna vaccine is 94.1% effective in preventing symptomatic Covid-19.
“Super enzymes” that eat plastic
In order to solve another ecological crisis, scientists designed a “super enzyme” that can decompose the edible plastic of the bottle within a few days.
These enzymes break down a common type of plastic called polyethylene terephthalate (used in disposable bottles as well as clothes and carpets) into its chemical building blocks.
Water on the moon
NASA announced that they had discovered water on the surface of the moon for the first time. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration confirmed the existence of water molecules H2O under the sun on the moon. This shows that water is widely distributed on the surface of the moon.
However, the moon is so dry that, by comparison, the amount of water in the Sahara Desert is 100 times the amount of water detected in the lunar soil by the SOFIA mission.
Water molecules have been detected in the Clavius crater. The crater is located in the southern hemisphere of the moon and is one of the largest craters visible on earth.
The first crops harvested in space
NASA astronaut Kate Rubins (Kate Rubins) harvested carrot plants that grow in the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) on the International Space Station.
She meticulously collected and wrapped each of the 20 radish plants and refrigerated them in foil to return to the earth in 2021.
For the first time, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Nasa) has grown radishes in APH’s orbital laboratory, which is an experiment on the plant.
Do aliens exist?
So-called scientists have discovered the first hint of the detection of exoplanets in the radio field. It is believed that the first possible radio signal originated from a planet about 51 light-years away from the solar system.
The researchers also observed other potential external emission candidates in Constellation Cancer and the Upsilon Andromedae system.
Waymo became the first company to provide self-driving car services to the public without human supervision in Chandler, Arizona. Self-driving car provider Zoox also revealed a fully functional electric self-driving car designed for dense urban environments.
Eliminating the need for rickshaw drivers, robotaxi can make it a very affordable solution for customers.
E-5 takes samples from the moon
In December, the moon had a new visitor: China’s e’e-5 lander-a robotic mission for China’s moon landing program. It returned to Earth and brought 1,731 grams of samples collected from the moon. This is China’s first attempt to carry lunar samples in 40 years since the United States sent astronauts to the moon to collect samples.
NASA mission in March 2020
Mars 2020 is the Mars rover mission of the Mars Exploration Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which includes persistent rover and clever helicopter drones. It will study the habitable conditions on Mars and prepare for future human missions.
Discover the oldest crater in the world
A crater in Western Australia was formed by a meteor impact more than 2.2 billion years ago and is the oldest known impact point in the world. This discovery also adds a huge possibility, that is, the huge impact may greatly change the earth’s climate, thus ending the global “deep freeze” period.
Measured wind speed of brown dwarf
For the first time, scientists have measured wind speed directly on a brown dwarf, a sub-stellar object larger than Jupiter (the largest planet in our solar system) but not enough mass to become a star.
To achieve this discovery, they used a new method that can also be used to understand the atmospheres of gas-based planets outside our solar system.
(Opinions from institutions)