Barking This man’s best friend is for good reason, and has been inseparable from us for thousands of years.
However, according to new research, they may not only be valuable companions, but also potentially save our lives from dangerous diseases.
what’s new – A study led by a team of French researchers, published in the journal on Thursday PLOS genetics Identify the genetic risk factors associated with histiocytic sarcoma, which is a rare blood cancer in both humans and dogs.
The focus of this study is on three dog breeds, which have similar loci in a variety of canine cancers. These dogs include Bernese Mountain Dogs, Rottweilers and Hunting Dogs, especially Flat Coated Retrievers and Golden Retrievers.
Through their research, scientists have achieved some key gains:
- A previously identified locus or a specific position of a gene on the chromosome (called CDKN2A) is associated with an increased risk of histocytic sarcoma
- Scientists have also discovered new loci related to the risk of histocytosarcoma on canine chromosomes 2, 5, 14 and 20
- The researchers concluded that these loci have additional risks for other cancers such as lymphoma or mast cells
The final findings may also have special significance for the study of human histocytic sarcoma.
The authors of the study wrote in a press statement: “This study uses the susceptibility of dog breeds to decipher the genetic basis of a rare human cancer histocytosarcoma.”
How they did it The researchers studied the common genetic risk of histocytic sarcoma in three dog breeds, also known as a genome-wide association study.
Scientists use these studies to scan the DNA of different people or different dog breeds for disease markers to help disease treatment and prevention. In this case, the researchers also used targeted genetic sequencing of specific loci to identify genetic variants associated with cancer.
The author wrote in the study: “This study aims to expand previous research by deciphering the genetic basis of (histiocytosarcoma) based on a multivariate approach.”
This is the genome-wide association study with the highest risk of histocytic sarcoma in dogs.
Dive into the details- Researchers have confirmed that some of the higher-risk alleles have a higher risk of histocytic sarcoma.
The researchers found that dogs with at least 5 breeds of 6 out of 6 that have inherited these risk alleles at three specific loci (CFA11, CFA5, and CFA14) have a five-fold higher risk of developing histiocytic sarcoma.
Why is it important- The specific alleles in these three dog breeds are not only associated with a higher risk of blood cancer, but also with lymphoma and other types of cancer.
This additive effect is called pleiotrophic, and it occurs when a gene may produce multiple effects in unexpected ways.
Polyphilia is also a common phenomenon in human cancer research, which makes this research also relevant to the study of human histocytic sarcoma.
The researchers write that the sheer genetic diversity of human cancers makes it “almost impossible in rare cancers,” such as histocytosarcoma, to study their potential genetic susceptibility.
However, dogs are raised artificially, so they can more easily identify the gene expression of certain alleles that have a higher risk of cancer. Therefore, if we can identify these genetic risk factors in dogs, it may also be the first step in identifying and treating them in humans.
The researchers concluded that the study of these three dog breeds “provides a unique opportunity to uncover the genetic basis of this cancer.”
What’s next- This research opens up exciting possibilities-not only for the treatment of blood cancers in these three types of dogs, but also for humans.
The researchers wrote: “Therefore, spontaneously infected pet dogs with specific breeds of cancer can provide an effective natural model to identify underlying genetics. Several homologous cancers of dogs and humans. “
However, scientists still have a long way to go before we can fully understand the common mechanism of blood cancer in these three dog breeds.
For example, the study contains only a small number of flat-coated hounds, so future research will need to pay more attention to the genetic similarities between hounds and the other two breeds.
The study also identified alleles closely related to a variety of cancers in Golden Retriever dogs. But further research is needed to determine whether Bernese Mountain Dogs also have these same risk cancer alleles.
However, for the time being, we can safely assume that humans have more in common with our favorite dogs, and the similarity may only save us from future cancers.
Abstract: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare but aggressive cancer in both humans and dogs. The spontaneous canine model has clinical, epidemiological and histological similarities with human HS and specific breed susceptibility, providing a unique opportunity to reveal the genetic basis of this cancer. In this study, we aimed to determine the germline risk factors associated with the development of HS in susceptible dog breeds. We have used a method that combines multiple genome-wide association studies in a multi-variety and multi-cancer approach, and summarized it for next-generation sequencing and interpolation. And Golden Retriever) and three types of hematopoietic cancers (HS, lymphoma and mast cell tumor). The results showed that we not only refined the previously identified HS risk CDKN2A locus, but also identified new loci on canine chromosomes 2, 5, 14, and 20. The capture and targeted sequencing of specific loci have shown that there is a regulatory variant methylation mechanism in the non-coding region that is related to dangerous haplotypes, which leads to a strong cancer susceptibility of specific dog species. We also show that these susceptibility loci for canine cancer appear to be due to the cumulative effect of several risk haplotypes associated with other hematopoietic cancers such as lymphoma or mast cell tumor. This illustrates the pleiotropic nature of these canine cancer loci observed in human oncology, thereby enhancing the interest of susceptible dog breeds in studying the occurrence and development of cancer.