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The story of planet resurrection in the eccentric three-star system



KOI-5Ab planet

The artist’s concept suggests that the planet KOI-5Ab is crossing the surface of a sun-like star, which is part of a three-star system located 1,800 light years in the constellation Cygnus. Credit: Caltech/R. Injury (IPAC)

A few years after it was discovered, astronomers learned that a planet named KOI-5Ab was operating in a three-star system with a skewed configuration.

Soon after NASA’s Kepler mission began operations in 2009, it identified planets that are considered planetary. Neptune. This planet, called KOI-5Ab, was the second new planet candidate discovered by the mission, but it was eventually forgotten by people with Kepler’s increasing planetary discoveries.By the end of the mission in 2018, Kepler had discovered as many as 2,394 exoplanets, or planets orbiting the sun, and another 2,366 Exoplanet Candidates, including KOI-5Ab.

right now, NASAThe Institute of Exoplanet Science (NExScI) at the California Institute of Technology IPAC said that due to new observations from NASA’s TESS (Transitional Exoplanet Survey Satellite) mission, he “has resurrected KOI-5Ab from the dead.”

Ciardi said: “The KOI-5Ab fell and was forgotten.” By 2014, Ciardi and other researchers had used WM Keck Observatory in Hawaii and Paloma at the California Institute of Technology near San Diego. The Observatory and the Gemini North in Hawaii, to prove that the KOI-5Ab hovering star is named KOI-5, but they are not sure whether the KOI-5 system actually contains a planet, or whether it can see from the other two stars. One wrong signal.

Then, in 2018, Tais Accompanied. Like Kepler, TESS will look for starlight flashes that occur when planets are in front of or passing stars. TESS observed part of Kepler’s field of view, including the KOI-5 system. Sure enough, TESS also identified KOI-5Ab as a candidate planet (although TESS called it TOI-1241b). TESS, like Kepler, discovered that a planet orbits its star about once every five days. But by then, it is still unclear whether the planet is real.

After seeing the TESS data, Ciardi said, “I thought to myself,’I still remember this goal.'” He then returned and reanalyzed all the data, including the one led by Andrew Howard, a professor of astronomy at the California Institute of Technology. “California Planetary Search” data. California Planet Search uses ground-based telescopes, including the Keck Observatory, to search for stellar wobbles in stars, which will wobble when a planet rotates around it and exerts a gravitational drag.

Ciardi said: “If it weren’t for TESS to look at this planet again, I would never go back and complete all these detective work.”

KOI-5 Triple Star System

The KOI-5 galaxy consists of three stars, which are labeled A, B, and C in this figure. The stars A and B orbit each other every 30 years. Star C revolves around stars A and B every 400 years. The system has a known planet called KOI-5Ab, which was discovered and characterized using NASA Kepler and TESS (Transitional Exoplanet Survey Satellite) missions and ground-based telescope data. KOI-5Ab is about half the mass of Saturn, with an orbiting star A approximately every five days. Its orbit is at an angle of 50 degrees with respect to the plane of star A and star B. Astronomers suspect that this inaccurate orbit is caused by star B. Star B exerted gravity on the earth during its development, causing it to deflect and migrate inward. Credit: Caltech/R. Injury (IPAC)

Kepler/K2 project scientist Jessie Dotson of NASA Ames Research Center said: “This study emphasizes the importance of NASA’s complete space telescope team and its synergy with ground-based systems. A discovery like this may be a long one. the process of.”

Data from space telescopes and ground-based telescopes together help confirm that KOI-5Ab is a planet. KOI-5Ab is approximately Saturn And revolve around the star (star A) with a relatively close partner (star B). Star A and Star B orbit each other once every 30 years. The third gravitationally constrained star (star C) revolves around stars A and B every 400 years.

The combined data set also shows that if both stars and planets are formed from the same swirling material, one might expect the orbital plane of the planet to be out of alignment with the orbital plane of the second inner star (star B). When three stars are born from the same disk of gas and dust together, a triple star system (approximately 10% of all star systems) is formed.

Astronomers are not sure what caused the misalignment of KOI-5Ab, but speculated that the second star was hit by gravity during its development, which deflected its orbit and caused it to migrate inward.

This is not the first evidence of planets in binary and three-star systems. One high-profile case involved the Samsung system GW Orionis, in which a planet-forming disk was torn into apparently misaligned rings, possibly forming a planet. Despite the discovery of hundreds of planets in multiple star systems, the frequency of planet formation in these systems is lower than in single star systems. This may be due to observational bias (single-star planets are easier to detect) or actually planet formation is not so common in multi-star systems.

Future instruments, such as the Palomar Radial Velocity Meter (PARVI) on Palomar’s 200-inch Hale Telescope and Keck’s Keck Planet Finder, will open up new ways to better answer these questions.

Jardi said: “Star companions may partially inhibit the formation of planets.” “We have a lot more about how and when planets form in multi-star systems and their properties compared to planets in single star systems. Question. By studying the KOI-5 system in more detail, maybe we can gain insight into how the universe makes planets.”




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