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Home / Science / The r fish is physically fused with its partner, we finally know how this is possible

The r fish is physically fused with its partner, we finally know how this is possible



When you have enough choices, dating is difficult enough, but imagine wandering in the darkness of nothingness, half-baked, hopeless, craving nutrition and love.

The life of single angle fish is the same. When there are not many fish in the deep sea, when they find a fish, they cannot be blamed for being stubborn.

Nevertheless, some phishers still take this demand to the extreme. When certain species sniff out a giant female in the dark, they will whip their sharp teeth and bite their date in the abdomen.

Once they are firmly grasped, these tiny males, sometimes no more than a centimeter, will release an enzyme that dissolves the surrounding skin, melts his and her tissues, and establishes a common blood circulation.

Eventually, this relationship allows him to eat regularly, which makes him feel comfortable, and may even begin to lose his eyes, fins and some internal organs.

Immune function 1The arrow shows a 23.5 mm male fish fused to the female fish. (Edith Weed)

In this terrible way, these fish are nothing but loyal and beloved appendages loyal to the testicles. Or, more accurately, sexual parasites.

As a naturalist said in 1938: “This is pure fiction. Unless we see the proof, all beliefs cannot be surpassed.”

We have-we actually have the lens. Apart from identical twins, scientists say this is the only other example of a naturally occurring sexual parasite.

For a hundred years, we have been thinking about how anglers actually do it, Now we may already know.

Even the best doctors are very difficult to fuse foreign body tissues and establish normal blood circulation. Human organ transplantation requires lifelong immunosuppressants because the vertebrate immune system has evolved to attack foreign objects that may pose a threat.

But anglers don’t seem to have these problems. By studying the genomes of 10 different angler fish, scientists discovered that these fish have differences in several key parts of the vertebrate immune system.

Some species lack a gene encoding an antigen found on the surface of somatic cells, and it is known that invaders will signal the immune system when they arrive.

These are called major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens. Although they are generally good for our health, they can cause many problems during organ and bone marrow transplantation when we wish to preserve foreign bodies.

Immunobiologist Jeremy Swann (Jeremy Swann) said: “In addition to this abnormal MHC gene cluster, we have also found that killer T cells that actively remove infected cells or attack foreign bodies in the process of organ rejection also function. It is severely weakened.” From the Max Planck Institute in Germany.

“These findings indicate that out of thousands of vertebrates, the immune system of the fish is very abnormal.”

To make these fish more unfamiliar, the researchers found that certain species lack antibodies-the second major immune defense system, which marks intruders for attack.

The author said that in humans, all these loss of immune function is likely to kill us.

Thomas Bohm, an immunologist at the Max Planck Institute, said: “Therefore, this study shows that although innate and adaptive functions have co-evolved for hundreds of millions of years, there are no adaptive immune facilities that were previously considered irreplaceable. The vertebrates can still survive.”

“We believe that the so far unknown evolutionary power will first drive changes in the immune system and then be used for the evolution of sexual parasites.”

So the question is here: How did the angle fish evolve to be able to merge with another fish? To: Without the most critical part of the vertebrate immune system, how can anglers evolve to survive?

1 immune functionFemale angle fish of this species Spines, 46 mm in diameter, 6.2 mm parasites fused on the back. (Theodore Pietsch)

Obviously, these fish are not completely unprotected. The author believes that they must use some kind of innate immunity to fight infection-a virus that does not remember and adapt to pathogens, but just kills them directly.

If this is true, it would destroy the key assumptions of vertebrate evolution.

The authors wrote: “Our findings challenge the view that if the innate and adaptive immune systems participate in the co-evolution, no arm will be eliminated without harmful consequences.”

In contrast, after the angle fish evolved in most vertebrates about 500 million years ago, it appeared to have lost this key aspect of the adaptive immune system.

Ted Pietsch, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Washington, said: “We found that several unusual ways of reproduction have been independently invented in this fish, which is remarkable.”

In the genome studied, the author actually identified several stages of this strange evolutionary process. The weaker the physical attachment between partners, the more similar the angler’s immune system is to other vertebrates.

So far, we are not sure why these anglerfish have adapted to such a peculiar immune system, but it seems likely to be related to their strange reproductive habits. These are probably driven in some way by their lonely environment.

When there is no hope for life outside of love, these fish seem to give up almost anything for their partners, fins, eyes, immune system and even organs.

Pietsch said: “There is basically no completeness.” New York Times.

The research was published in science.


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