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Home / Science / The biggest test shows that Einstein was wrong about "scary action at a distance"

The biggest test shows that Einstein was wrong about "scary action at a distance"



A groundbreaking quantum experiment recently confirmed the reality of the "spooky long-range effect" – the bizarre phenomenon that Einstein hated – in which connected particles seem to communicate faster than the speed of light.

And all it takes There were 12 teams of physicists in 10 countries, more than 100,000 volunteer players and over 97 million data units – all randomly generated by hand.

The volunteers operated from places around the world, playing an online video game on November. 30, 2016, which produced millions of bits or "binary digits" – the smallest unit of computer data.

Then physicists used these random bits in so-called bell tests to show tangled particles or particles whose states are mysteriously interconnected, can somehow transmit information faster than light can travel, and these particles seem to be in their states to "choose" the moment in which they are measured. [What Is Quantum Mechanics?]

Their findings, recently published in a new study, contradicted Einstein's description of a state known as "local realism," study co-author Morgan Mitchell, professor of quantum optics at the Institute of Photonic Sciences in Barcelona. Spain, told Live Science in an e-mail.

"We have shown that Einstein's worldview of local realism, in which things have properties, whether one observes them or not, and no influence is faster than the light, at least can not be true, one of these things must be wrong", Mitchell said.

This introduces the possibility of two thought scenarios: either our observations of the world actually change it, or particles communicate with each other in a way that we can. (1

9659002) "Or maybe both," Mitchell added.

Since the 1970s, physicists have been testing the plausibility of local realism using Bell tests first proposed in the 1960s by the Irish physicist John Bell

.aspx / t … 1_read-9612 / In tests, physicists randomly compare measurements such as the polarization of two entangled particles, such as photons that exist at different locations. If a photon is polarized in one direction (say above), the other side will only go sideways for a certain percentage of the time.

If the number of measurements of the particles is mutually reflective, it exceeds that threshold – regardless of what the particles are or the order in which the measurements are selected – this indicates that the separated particles will not change state. " choose "when measured. And it implies that the particles can communicate with each other immediately – the so-called spooky action at a distance that disturbed Einstein so much.

These synchronized answers thus contradict the notion of truly independent existence, a view that forms the basis of the principle of local realism upon which the rules of classical mechanics rest. But time and again, tests have shown that entangled particles show correlated states that exceed the threshold; that the world is indeed scary; and that Einstein was wrong. [The 18 Biggest Unsolved Mysteries in Physics]

  Volunteers in 190 countries played a game that provided researchers with more than 97,000 random bits that scientists used to measure entangled particles.

Volunteers in 190 countries played a game that provided researchers with more than 97,000 random bits, which the scientists used to measure entangled particles.

Credit: ICFO

Bell tests, however, require that the choice of the measurer should be truly random. And that's hard to show because unseen factors can influence researchers' choices, and even computer random data generation is not really random. This creates an error in Bell's tests known as the freedom of choice gap – the possibility that "hidden variables" could use the settings in the experiments, reports the scientists. If the measurements are not really random, the Bell tests can not definitively rule out local realism.

For the new study, researchers wanted to collect a tremendous amount of human-produced data to be sure that they contained real-world randomness in their calculations. These data enabled them to conduct a more comprehensive test of local reality than ever before, and at the same time allowed them to close the ongoing loophole, the researchers claimed.

"Local realism is a question we can not answer with a machine," Morgan said in a statement, "It seems that we ourselves must be part of the experiment to keep the universe honest." [19659008] Random Number Generators

Their efforts, called the Big Bell Test, obligated players – or "bellsters" – to an online tapping game called Big Bell Quest, and players quickly and repeatedly tapped two buttons on a screen Their choices flowed to laboratories on five continents, where the random selection of participants was used to select measurement settings for the comparison of entangled particles, the researchers reported.

  During the Big Bell Test Initiative on the 30th November 2016, over 100,000 people have been using an online game to generate data for a global physics experiment.

W During the Big Bell Testing Initiative on November 30, 2016, over 100,000 people used an online game to generate data for a global physics experiment.

Credit: ICFO

Each of the laboratories carried out various experiments using different particles – single atoms, atomic groups, photons and superconducting devices – and showed their results in a variety of tests "strong disagreements with local realism" study online today ( May 9) was published in the journal Nature.

The experiments also showed a fascinating similarity between humans and quantum particles to randomness and free will. If the tests conducted by Bell were purely coincidental and unaffected by the entangled particles themselves, then the behavior of humans and particles was random, Mitchell explained.

"If we are free, they are too," he said

Original article by Live Science .


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