The report said: “This report continues the traditional emphasis on individuals two years and older, and for the first time expanded on this basis to reflect more and more evidence about proper nutrition in early life.”
“The nutritional exposure to the first 1,000 days of life not only contributes to long-term health, it also helps shape taste preferences and food choices.”
These final recommendations were published on Wednesday and sent to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which use them to develop final dietary guidelines for 2020 to 2025, which will guide Americans in the next five years. Partial diet.
Nutrition researcher Marion Nestle said that the recommendations of the advisory group “have a lot of influence”
Nestlé said: “They manage the food aid program, which affects the food industry’s market and also affects the public’s actual guidelines and food recommendations.”
So, considering all the short-term challenges, Covid-19 logistics and the need to add suggested questions in the first two years of life, what is the way the committee works?
Nestlé said: “This is an impressive, solid, conservative review of existing science that is highly consistent with previous dietary guidelines, but most have stronger recommendations.”
She added: “In the beginning, I was worried that the members of the committee might be heavily biased in the interests of the food industry. If it did, this bias would not appear in the final report. I think the committee would provide this quality report in this case. It should be highly praised.”
No added sugar at all
An important message in the 2020 baby recommendations is that for the development of babies, there is no need to add any suitable amount of sugar.
The committee said: “In the first two years of life, avoid eating foods and beverages with added sugar.” “The energy in such products is likely to replace the energy in nutrient-rich foods, thereby increasing the risk of undernutrition.
“In addition, eating sugary drinks increases the risk of being overweight or obese.”
The added sugar is used in processed foods and beverages to sweeten it, and is different from the natural sugar in a piece of fruit or a glass of milk.
Dr. Stephen Abrams, pediatrician chairman of the American Academy of Pediatrics Nutrition Committee, said: “Apples and oranges contain sugar, but they also provide fiber and overall nutrition.”
However, according to AAP, although 100% juice seems to provide the same nutritional benefits as the whole fruit, it actually does not.
Abrams said: “Juice, especially the juice of children at the age of one, is a source of sugar and does not have much nutritional value.” “Therefore, this situation should always be avoided.”
AAP recommends that children between 1 and 3 years of age should not drink more than 4 ounces of 100% fruit juice per day.
The committee found: “Nearly 70% of the sugar ingested comes from five foods: sweet drinks, desserts and sweets, coffee and tea (and their additives), sweets and sugar, and breakfast cereals and bars.”
The committee recommends that parents avoid sugar in children’s diets because it is closely related to childhood obesity and future chronic health conditions.
The report said: “Early nutritional exposure has become a causal risk factor associated with chronic disease risk in later life.”
Abrams, director of the Dell Pediatrics Institute at the University of Texas at Austin, said: “Every bite of food is important, and I think it is a very good motto.” “I like it very much because it reminds you of it , Foods fed by babies do make a difference.”
What about older children and adults? The committee reduced the recommended amount of added sugar from 10% of daily calories to 6%-for adults who consume a 2,000 calorie diet per day, this means that they should consume less than 120 calories per day from added sugar.
From one perspective, a can of sugared soda is about 150 calories.
Breasts are best
Breast milk contains healthy micronutrients that are important for infant development, and in most cases will be affected by the female diet and supplemental nutrition.
The committee found: “The strongest evidence found is that breastfeeding can reduce the risk of being overweight or obese, type 1 diabetes, and asthma compared to never breastfeeding.”
The committee found in its working draft that formula-fed infants are more likely to gain weight faster than breast-fed infants, which may be due to higher protein intake of formula-fed infants or over-feeding by nursing staff to avoid “waste” “food.
The committee said that the first type of food should not be given to infants before 4 months of age. Studies have shown that doing so increases the risk of obesity from 2 to 12 years old. For infants fed with formula milk, this seems to be especially true, as they may not be able to adjust their sense of “fullness”, as are breastfeeding infants.
The committee also encourages women to strictly follow healthy dietary recommendations before and during pregnancy.
The report says: “Although pregnant women or lactating women have a higher diet in key foods, they are still below the recommended level.” The risk of chronic diseases begins early in life, based on the mother’s dietary intake and after infants and young children Feeding behavior has important health consequences for the fetus. “
The committee found that eating fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids is a key benefit for pregnant women and newborns. It may be related to reducing the risk of gestational diabetes and hypertension during pregnancy, while also reducing the risk of preterm birth.
Vitamin D, iron, zinc and allergies
The nutritional issues that may be involved in infant development involve iron, zinc and vitamin D. Since breast milk does not contain enough vitamin D, unless the mother supplements high levels of vitamins, the committee has followed the guidelines of AAP: All babies and some breast milk babies need to take 400 IU of vitamin D and drink vitamin D from birth to weaning Fortified milk or infant formula.
The committee said that there is no need to exceed this level: “Existing evidence is insufficient to provide a basis for recommending supplementation of more than 400 IU of vitamin D per day during infancy.”
The committee said that iron is important for “normal nervous system development and immune function” and added that studies have shown that both iron and zinc in breastfed infants will be reduced by six months.
Therefore, parents of breastfeeding babies should be fed meat foods rich in iron and zinc or foods with high iron content such as fortified infant cereals within six months of birth.
But be careful, because too much iron can also be harmful. Infants fed formula milk may also get double the iron content if they also eat cereals. The committee does not recommend the use of iron supplements for babies unless the screening of doctors reveals that iron supplements are seriously insufficient.
The committee recommends that it is also important to give infants enough polyunsaturated fatty acids, because infants play an important role in brain development. The key sources are fish, fish oil, vegetable oil, nuts and seeds.
The committee also found that introducing peanuts and eggs in “age-appropriate form” after 4 months of age may reduce the risk of food allergies to these foods. Although there is no evidence that other allergens such as nuts and seafood are also strong, there is no harm in introducing this potentially allergenic food.
This is a shocking thing for men who drink alcohol: the Committee recommends reducing the current guidance for men drinking two glasses of wine and drinking a glass of wine for women every day.
The report said: “The recommended limit for men and women to drink alcohol is to drink one glass of alcohol per day while drinking.”
Studies have shown that the increase in average alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, so “people who do not drink alcohol should not start drinking because they believe that drinking will make them healthier.”
Sodium and salt and their role in the increasing prevalence of hypertension and heart disease are also outside the scope of the Commission’s mandate. Nestlé said: “Except for excessive sodium intake, the report hardly mentions sodium. People should’reduce sodium intake.'”
The committee did not mention that drinking water is more hydrating than other beverages. They also did not propose to limit Americans’ obsession with over-processed foods, because over-processed foods will lose nutritional value as shelf life extends.
Nestlé said that “super-processing” is a new method of talking about foods that should not be eaten often or in large amounts. There has been a lot of evidence in the past five years.
Nestlé said: “Except for references, the term did not appear in the report.” “If the committee considered this evidence, it did not specify it.”
Critics say these issues have not been resolved because the federal government canceled the independence of the 2020 Diet Advisory Committee.
Nestlé said: “In the 40-year history of the Dietary Guidelines, the USDA and HHS agencies set the scientific agenda for the first time, not the committee.”
Nestlé said that although we don’t know whether the committee will consider other topics, “sustainability, meat, sodium and ultra-processed foods have become a popular nutrition topic today, and it will be a great help to let the committee take action on these issues. “.