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Study the DNA of ancient dogs and trace dog diversity to the Ice Age



Study the DNA of ancient dogs and trace dog diversity to the Ice Age

Veretye ​​dog pictures. Credit: EE Antipina

A global study of ancient dog DNA conducted by scientists from the Francis Crick Institute, University of Oxford, University of Vienna, and archaeologists from more than a dozen countries showed that in this period more than 1

1,000 years ago, There are different types of dogs. Follow the ice age.


In their research, published in science Today, the research team has performed ancient DNA sequencing on 27 dogs in Europe, the Near East, and Siberia, some of which have lived nearly 11,000 years ago. They found that at this point in history, just after the Ice Age, before any other animals were domesticated, there were at least five different types of dogs with different genetic ancestors.

This finding suggests that the diversity observed among dogs in different parts of the world today originated from the fact that all humans are still hunters and gatherers.

Pontus Skoglund, author and team leader of Crick’s Ancient Genomics Laboratory, said: “Some differences among people walking dogs on the street today originated in the Ice Age. By the end of this period, dogs throughout the north It’s already common in the hemisphere.”

This study of ancient genomics involves the extraction and analysis of DNA from bone material. It provides a window into the past, enabling researchers to discover evolutionary changes that occurred thousands of years ago.

The research team showed that in the past 10,000 years, these early dog ​​breeds mixed and migrated, resulting in the breeds we know today. For example, the early European dogs were initially diverse and seemed to come from two highly different populations, one related to the Near East dog and the other related to the Siberian dog. However, at some point, this diversity has been lost because it does not exist in European dog breeds today.

The videos of Pontus Skoglund and Anders Bergström explain the findings of their paper “The Origin and Genetic Heritage of Prehistoric Dogs”.Credit: Francis Creek College

Anders Bergström, the lead author and postdoctoral researcher of the Ancient Genomics Laboratory at Crick University, said: “If we look back over four to five thousand years ago, we can see that Europe is a very diverse The place “Although the European dogs we see today have such unusual shapes and forms, they are genetically derived from only a small part of the diversity that existed in the past. “

The researchers also compared the evolution of dogs in history with changes in human evolution, lifestyle and migration. In many cases, comparable changes have taken place, which may well reflect how humans bring their dogs on as they move around the world.

However, in some cases, the history of people and dogs cannot reflect each other. For example, in early Europe, the loss of diversity in dogs was caused by the spread of single dog pedigrees that replaced other populations. This dramatic event has not been reflected in humans, and the cause of this loss in the European dog lineage has yet to be determined.

Greger Larson, author and director of the Oxford University Paleogenomics and Bioarchaeology Research Network, said: “Dogs are our oldest and closest animal companions. The use of ancient dog DNA shows us that we share How far back the history of the company will eventually help us understand when and where this deep relationship began.”

Ron Pinhasi, author and team leader at the University of Vienna, said: “Just as ancient DNA revolutionized our research on ancestors, it is now also doing the same research on dogs and other domestic animals. . Studying our animal companions adds another layer to our understanding of human history.”

Although this research provides important new insights into the early history of the dog herd and its relationship with humans and each other, there are still many problems. In particular, the research team is still working hard to explore where and in which human cultural background the dog was first domesticated.


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More information:
A. Bergströmet al. , “The Origin and Genetic Heritage of Prehistoric Dogs”, science (2020). science.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi…1126 / science.aba9572

“Dog and Man” science (2020). science.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi…1126 / science.abe7823

Courtesy of the Francis Crick Institute

Citation:Ancient dog DNA traced to the study of dog breed diversity in the Ice Age (October 29, 2020). Retrieved from https://phys.org/news/2020-10-ancient-dog- from October 29, 2020. dna-canine-diversity.html

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