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Scientists sequenced the 92-year-old mold that produced the first antibiotic penicillin



Now, scientists have awakened Fleming’s primitive Penicillium and sequenced its genome for the first time. They say that the information they collect may help fight antibiotic resistance.

Professor Tim Barraclough (Tim Barraclough) said: “After all this time in the refrigerator, it will quickly resume growth. It is easy, just take it out of the test tube and put it in a petri dish. Just go.” The Department of Life Sciences, Imperial University, London and the Department of Zoology, Oxford University.

“To our surprise, despite its historical importance to the primitive Penicillium, no one has sequenced its genome.”

Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928 while working at St. Mary̵

7;s Hospital Medical School, which is now part of Imperial College London.

The research team recovered Fleming’s original Penicillium spp., the home of 30,000 microorganisms, from frozen samples stored in CABI’s cultures, and extracted DNA for sequencing. Since 1945, the mold has been stored in the cold room there.
This is not the first regeneration of the mold. In 2019, the penicillium grown from the original strain went to China and India for a world education journey.

Fight against super bacteria

The research team used genetic information to compare Fleming’s mold with two Penicillium strains from the United States, which are used to produce antibiotics on an industrial scale.

They studied two genes: one encoding the enzyme used by fungi to produce penicillin; the other encoding the enzyme penicillin. And those that regulate enzymes, for example, by controlling how many enzymes are produced. The research was published in the journal Scientific Reports on Thursday.
This tube changed the medical history.

Balaklava said they are looking for differences that naturally evolve over time, which will shed light on how to modify the production of antibiotics to help fight superbugs.

He said: “This may provide us with some suggestions on how to try to improve our use or design anti-bacterial antibiotics.”

“People are always trying to find new and new antibiotics. But when each antibiotic is put into use, after a period of time (five to ten years), the same thing will happen. ,” he added.

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His team “is studying the possible subtle differences in a class of antibiotics, and how they change in nature, and whether we can use these subtle differences to slightly change the balance of these bacteria.”

Fleming initially worked hard to find the exact strain of the fungus, thus forming a bacteria-free circle in his petri dish. Over the years, Penicillium has been identified as several species that can produce penicillin.
During the 1930s and 1940s, scientists in the United Kingdom and the United States evaluated many different strains to see if they could be used in the mass production of penicillin, a drug that saved thousands of wounded soldiers and soldiers during World War II. civilian.
Fleming realized during his lifetime that his discovery might be threatened by antibiotic resistance, and warned of this danger in his Nobel Prize speech in 1945.

He said: “Maybe it’s time for anyone in the store to buy penicillin.” It is resistant.”

Because bacteria surpass our most advanced drugs, it is estimated that by 2050, drug resistance will cause 10 million deaths each year.

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