Scientists said Monday that Antarctica is the most remote region on earth and one of the most rapidly warming regions. Since the 1990s, the surface air temperature has risen three times faster than the global average.
Researchers say that although warming may only be the result of natural climate changes, the effects of human warming are likely to be the cause of climate warming.
Researchers reported in a paper published in the journal Nature that the Arctic is the location of the US research base and is located inside the Antarctic. It is cold and empty. Over the past ten years, it has warmed about 0.6 degrees Celsius or 1
Although parts of the Antarctic coastal area are losing ice, which is contributing to sea level rise, because the annual average temperature is still around minus -50 degrees Celsius, there is no danger of the pole melting. But the findings show that on a warming planet, no place is immune to change.
Researchers analyzed weather data and used climate models to find that rising temperatures are the result of changes in atmospheric circulation, which originated thousands of miles away in the western tropical Pacific.
The lead author of the study, Kyle Clem, a postdoctoral fellow at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, said: “The rate of warming in Antarctica is incredible, mainly driven by tropical regions.”
Although climate change caused by carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions is likely to play a role, analysis shows that natural climate change can explain all extreme fluctuations in temperature, effectively masking any human-induced effects.
Dr. Clem said: “The interior of Antarctica may be one of the few remaining artificial signals on the earth. Due to this extreme variability, it cannot be easily sent.”
He added: “However, it is difficult to have such a strong warming trend without increasing greenhouse gas emissions.”
Since the completion of the first base in the United States in 1957, it has maintained extreme temperature records. For decades, the average temperature has been stable or falling. The strong westerly winds surrounding the continent acted as a barrier, preventing warm air from invading the interior.
Dr. Clem said, but this situation changed at the end of the 20th century, when the surface temperature of the tropical western Pacific began to rise, which was part of the natural oscillations that occurred on the time scale for decades.
The warming ocean heats the air, causing high-pressure and low-pressure ripples in the atmosphere that extend to more than 5,000 miles of the Antarctic Peninsula. Scientists call this type of remote connection a remote connection.
Accompanied by stronger westerly winds, this is part of another long-term pattern, and the ripples have caused a stronger storm in the Weddell Sea in the eastern part of the peninsula. These rotating or cyclonic storms blow hotter air from the South Atlantic into the interior of the continent.
The strong storm in the Weddell Sea also caused Sea ice has recently declined in the region.
Dr. Clem said that the warming across the Antarctic Plateau is uneven. It is a huge and vast area covering most of the interior space including the pole, with an average altitude of nearly two miles. He said, but the only other permanent base on the plateau is the Russian Vostok station, about 800 miles from the pole, and its temperature has also risen rapidly.
Ripples from the tropical Pacific also affected the Antarctic Peninsula, which has been one of the fastest-heating regions in the world for most of the late 20th century. But in the past few decades, the rate of temperature increase there has been greatly reduced.
In an email, two researchers at the University of Colorado, Sharon E. Stammerjohn and Ted A. Scambos, said that in the past 50 years, although the rest of the world has been steadily warming, Antarctica has experienced major fluctuations. And there may always be. Neither scientist participated in the study, but they published a review of the study in the same issue.
They said that as the ocean temperature in the tropical Pacific turns to cool, the rate of warming in Antarctica may also decrease, but the magnitude will not be greater than when there is no human-induced climate change.
In an interview, Dr. Stammerjohn said: “Warming in Antarctica is very important because it is the most distant place on earth.”
She said: “But it will never exceed the freezing point.” “We don’t have to worry about losing ice at the poles now. But the coastline is definitely another matter.”
Especially on the western coast of Antarctica, the hot water taken away from the depths due to the wind melts the ice shelf below, which eventually causes the sea level to rise.
Dr. Stammerjohn said there is increasing evidence that the way the earth responds to warming is changing the atmosphere and ocean circulation on a large scale.
She said: “This is what causes the warmth of deep water.” “This will superimpose a lot of variability, but the direction and prediction will be towards more and more hot water and more ice sheet loss.”
Dr Stammerjohn said: “It is easy to think that Antarctica is isolated from the world and will not respond to climate change.” Although the impact on Antarctica may be less severe, the loss of ice along the coast has a huge impact.
She said: “This will greatly change our sea level.”
She said that Antarctic warming is “the ultimate canary in a coal mine, and we can no longer ignore it.”