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Ripples in time and space may provide clues to the missing elements of the universe



Ripples in time and space may provide clues to the missing elements of the universe

The waves merge and create a unique new signature illustration. Image credit: Ezquiaga and Zumalácarregui

Our theory of the universe has some shortcomings. Almost everything is suitable, but there are flies in the cosmic ointment and sand in the infinite sandwich. Some scientists believe that the culprit may be the subtle ripples in the gravity-space-time structure that can help us find the missing parts.

A new paper co-authored by a scientist at the University of Chicago explains how this might work.Posted on December 21

Physical Examination D, The method depends on finding such ripples that bend on their way to the earth through supermassive black holes or large galaxies.

The problem is that something not only causes the universe to expand, but as time passes faster and faster, no one knows what it is. (Finding the exact rate is an ongoing debate in cosmology).

Scientists have proposed various theories to solve the missing parts. The co-author of the paper, NASA Einstein postdoctoral researcher Jose Maria Ezquiga at the Kavli Institute for Cosmophysics at the University of Chicago, said: “Many of them rely on changing the way gravity works on large scales.” “Therefore, gravitational waves are ideal messengers to observe these possible changes in gravity (if any).”

Gravitational waves are the pulsations of space-time itself. Since 2015, humans have been able to use the LIGO observatory to discover these ripples. Whenever two huge heavy objects collide with other places in the universe, they will produce a ripple that propagates in space, with the characteristics of any creation-it may be the collision of two black holes or two neutron stars.

In this paper, Ezquega and his co-author Miguel Zumalácarregui (Miguel Zumalácarregui) argue that if such waves hit a supermassive black hole or cluster of galaxies on their way to the earth, the ripples The characteristics will change. If there is a difference in gravity compared to Einstein’s theory, the evidence will be embedded in the signature.

For example, one theory about the missing part of the universe is that there are extra particles. Among other effects, such particles can create a background or “medium” around large objects. If a traveling gravitational wave hits a supermassive black hole, it will produce a wave that is mixed with the gravitational wave itself. Depending on the situation encountered, the gravitational wave signature may be “echoed” or confused.

Ezquiaga said: “This is a new way to explore previously untestable solutions.”

Their paper proposes how to find the conditions for this effect in future data. The next operation of LIGO is planned to start in 2022 and will be upgraded to make the detector more sensitive than before.

Ezquiaga said: “In our last observation with LIGO, we saw new gravitational wave readings every six days, which is amazing. But throughout the universe, we think they actually happen every five minutes.” “In the next upgrade, we can see many of these events-hundreds of events every year.”

He said that the increase in number makes it more likely that one or more waves will pass through a huge object, and scientists will be able to analyze it to find clues about missing components.

Zumalácarregui, the other author of the paper, is a scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics in Germany, the Berkeley Center for Cosmophysics at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the University of California, Berkeley.


Researchers reveal the origin of merged black holes


More information:
Jose María Ezquiaga et al. Gravitational wave lensing goes beyond general relativity: birefringence, echo and shadow, Physical Examination D (2020). DOI: 10.1103 / PhysRevD.102.124048

Provided by the University of Chicago



Citation: Ripples in time and space may start from https://phys.org/news/2020-12-ripples-space-time-clues-components- Universe.html on December 28, 2020

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