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Researchers invent new gene editing tools



DNA

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Researchers from the University of Chicago in Illinois have discovered a new gene editing technology that can program or edit continuous cuts over time.

CRISPR is a gene editing tool that allows scientists to change the DNA sequence in a cell and sometimes add required sequences or genes. CRISPR uses an enzyme called Cas9, which acts like scissors and can cut DNA precisely at the desired position. Once cut, it can affect the way cells repair DNA breaks, resulting in different changes or editing of DNA sequences.

The discovery of the gene editing function of the CRISPR system has been described in the early 201

0s. In just a few years, scientists have become obsessed with the simplicity of instructing CRISPR to easily target almost any DNA sequence in a cell or many different locations in a cell in a single experiment.

UIC’s Bradley said: “The disadvantage of currently available CRISPR-based editing systems is that all editing or cutting is done at once. There is no way to guide them so that they proceed one after another in a sequential manner.” Merrill ( Merrill) is an associate professor of biochemistry and molecular genetics at the medical school and the lead author of the paper.

Merrill and colleagues’ new method involves the use of special molecules called guide RNAs that deliver the Cas9 enzyme inside the cell and determine the precise DNA sequence that Cas9 cuts. They call their specially designed guide RNA molecule “proGuides”, which allows the use of Cas9 to program and edit DNA.

Their findings are published in the magazine Molecular cell.

While proGuide is still in the prototype stage, Merrill and colleagues plan to further develop its concept and hope that researchers can use the technology as soon as possible.

Merrill said: “The ability to pre-program the sequential activation of Cas9 at multiple sites introduces a new tool for biological research and genetic engineering.” “The time factor is a key factor in human development and disease progression, but currently The genetic method of studying these processes cannot effectively coordinate with the time factor. Our system allows gene editing in a pre-programmed manner, so that researchers can better study time-sensitive processes, such as how cancer develops from some genetic mutations How development and the order in which these mutations occur affects the disease.”


Biochemists use the CRISPR system to discover why genome editing fails


More information:
Ryan Clarke et al. “Guide the sequential activation of RNA to achieve continuous CRISPR-Cas9 activity”, Molecular cell (2020). DOI: 10.1016 / j.molcel.2020.12.003

Provided by the University of Illinois at Chicago



Citation: Researchers invented a new gene editing tool (February 23, 2021), the technology will be available from https://phys.org/news/2021-02-gene-editing-tool.html on February 23, 2021 Search

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