Theresa Vescio, Professor of Psychology and Women’s, Gender and Sexual Studies at Pennsylvania State University, said: “This work shows that masculinity is not just an ideology that men strive to achieve. It’s us as a kind of What culture values.”
“The beauty of masculinity as a cultural ideology is that even if it is subordinate, women can participate and recognize it. We can allow men of color, men with low socioeconomic status, and homosexuals to recognize it, even if it implicitly obeys. We, Vesio said.
Vissio said this view may “explain the increase in Latinos and blacks who support Trump…or the increase in white women who support Trump.”
Professor Christopher Federico said: “This is an interesting study. Compared to the idea that’hegemonic masculinity’ can predict voting and candidate attitudes, even when we control what we expect to predict political behavior After the other variables, the results are relatively convincing. The University of Minnesota’s PhD in Political Science and Psychology, who did not participate via email, did not participate in the research.
Federico stated that the results are only observational and cannot give a direct cause and effect relationship, but consistent with previous research, the previous research found that “emphasis on dominance” and “low emphasis” on cooperation, This can indicate support for Trump. Director of the University Political Psychology Research Center.
Federico said: “It makes sense that a man who values control, toughness, etc., will support Trump.” He added, “People who hold traditional gender concepts and traditional concepts think that men play People who play’male’ roles” and women in society also tend to support Trump more. “
Seven studies were conducted during the two elections
During the two elections, researchers queried more than 2,000 people in seven separate studies. In the days and months after Trump won the Hillary Clinton nomination for the presidential nomination in 2016, Vescio and her colleagues conducted six studies. The seventh study was conducted 50 days before the November 2020 election was defeated.by Former Vice President of the United States Joseph Biden.
Participants were recruited from the Penn State University student bank and two crowdsourced applications. Students will earn part of the course points, while the hourly salary of other participants is US$0.50 or US$9.66.
The study found that although male-dominated preferences can predict Trump’s support, “bias is a more consistent predictor of voting.” The study said: “Other studies are needed to fully understand the results predicted by (hegemonic masculinity) and prejudice.”
Matthew Feinberg, Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior One problem with the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto is that Trump collected data after defeating Clinton in 2016.
Feinberg said in an email: “It may be that after Trump became president, people’s attitudes, especially attitudes about masculinity were affected.” “Despite Trump’s actions and his hegemonic masculinity performance. , But many people still raised their noses and voted for him in 2016, choosing to vote for their preferred party.
Feinberg continued: “But processes such as cognitive dissonance require people to constantly reconcile their attitudes and behaviors.” “If so, those who support Trump and his hegemonic masculinity People may convince themselves that they also have a more consistent attitude towards Trump.”
vescitur Pointed to the 2020 study, which examined attitudes before the election, and said that cognitive dissonance did not explain the data she found.
She said: “We can’t completely rule it out. But the data is not completely consistent, because even if we control the Republicans and Democrats, we will have an impact beyond this range.”
More than just “unstable” male identity
The results of the seven studies also show that the recognition of “hegemonic masculinity” is more predictive of support for Trump than the concept of “dangerous masculinity” or PMI. In this concept, “through continued masculinity behavior” Acquire and maintain masculinity,” and the author of the study wrote: “Temporary mistakes in male behavior may threaten men.”
The study said that the traditionally unstable male identity was seen as a key reason why men might want to ally with Trump, but failed to explain his support among women and certain minorities.
“The basic idea is that masculinity is more fragile than femininity and needs to be constantly acquired and maintained openly. Men who feel (or are led to believe) their male status tend to support Trump more,” Federica Ke said.
“One reason is that Trump-at least in his publicly played roles-exudes exaggerated dominance of masculinity. Therefore, supporting him may be a way of borrowing or displaying this spirit. One is masculine by supporting “male” agents,” he said.
Federico said that research has also found that PMI is related to other “aggressive attitudes, such as support for gun culture and militarism,” as well as “greater gender discrimination and opposition to equality.”
He added: “To the extent Trump is seen as supporting these positions, people may indirectly end up supporting Trump more because people think he will recognize Trump.”
However, Federico explained that the new study found that PMI is less predictive than the preference for hegemonic masculinity, which is meaningful for both men and women.