The multiverse theory states that our universe is only one in a large number of possible universes created after the Big Bang. Supported by many world-class physicists, including Neil deGrasse Tyson and the late Stephen Hawking, this idea has been known since the 1980s and has been used, in part, to explain the surprisingly low levels of dark energy in our universe.
Dark Energy is the mysterious force that drives the progressive expansion of the universe. Unlike any other force, the dark energy does not slow down over time, but actually accelerates further, accounting for about 70 percent of the entire universe Science Alert .
Current theories about the origin of the universe predict that there should actually be more dark energy in our universe than is observed. This suggests a calculation error considering that, according to the same predictions, a larger amount of dark energy would cause the universe to expand too rapidly to form stars and planets, meaning that we would not exist
Cosmos Magazine tries to explain this computational anomaly by multiverse theory. The theory is that each of the worlds in the multiverse contains a different percentage of dark energy, and that, by some lucky chance, we have emerged into an area where dark energy is low enough for life to appear.
Yet another pair of studies published last week in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society have shown that the influence of dark energy on the formation of stars and planets is not as strong as before accepted.
Led by Durham University in the UK in collaboration with three Australian universities ̵
This in turn indicates that the multiverse, if it actually exists, could be full of life, EurekAlert reports. Because a higher level of dark energy would still allow life in the universe, this suggests the possibility that life might have occurred in other universes, despite their estimated higher percentage of dark energy.
– Phys.org (@physorg_com) May 14, 2018
Co-researcher Dr. med. Luke Barnes of Western Sydney University says that the two studies – available here and here – show that the happy coincidence used by multiverse theory to explain how our universe came into existence is a bit too happy.
"The multiverse was formerly thought to be the observed value of dark energy as a lottery – we have a lucky ticket and live in the universe that makes beautiful galaxies that allow life as we know it."
As Barnes says, "our ticket" is "more special than it must be lifelong [to exist]."
"This is a problem for the multiverse, a puzzle remains," he emphasizes.
The international team of scientists made this discovery after creating a model of the universe with the tools of the EAGLE project (Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments) – one of the most realistic simulations of the observed universe, models for around 10,000 Galaxies over a distance of 300 million light years.
"Our simulations show that even if there were much more dark energy or even very little in the universe, this would only have a minimal effect on the formation of stars and planets, increasing the prospect of life across the multiverse "Co-author Jaime Salcido from the Institute of Computational Cosmology at Durham University said.
A hypothetical multiverse seems less likely to be modeled Researchers have cast doubt on one of his key assumptions. https://t.co/onHusck14L
– Cosmos Magazine (@CosmosMagazine) May 14, 2018
"We wondered how much dark energy there can be before life is impossible?" explains Dr. Pascal Eliahi of the University of Western Australia
"Even the increase in dark energy many times over might not be enough to create a dead universe," he said.
The team emphasizes that these results deepen the "frustrating puzzle" "Why our universe has so little dark energy, considering that this is not necessarily a prerogative for life after the simulations.
" We have In our simulations found that universes with much darker energy than we can happily form stars. So why such a miserable amount of dark energy in our universe? "Asks Prof. Richard Bower, also from the Institute for Computational Cosmology.
The simulations showed that if we actually live in a multiverse, our universe should contain 50 times more dark energy than currently estimated.
Like Bower emphasizes, a new law of dark energy is needed to explain why our universe is so special regarding the distribution of dark energy.
"I think we should seek a new law of physics to this strange property of our universe and the multiverse theory does little to save physicists' discomfort. "