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Neuroscience: Create a mature artificial “brain in the disk” “like a human brain”



Artificial “brains in the brain” were created to become “mature like the human brain” and may reveal diseases such as Alzheimer’s and schizophrenia

  • Organoids are simplified miniature versions of real organs grown in the laboratory
  • They are made from stem cells and have the potential to form different cell types
  • Brain organoids have helped experts learn about autism and epilepsy
  • However, it is thought that they will not develop beyond the fetal period
  • This means that organoids are not suitable for studying adult diseases such as dementia
  • But experts show that they can mature and follow an internal clock like ours

In the laboratory, the “brain in the brain” grown from stem cells can develop “like the human brain” and can help clarify diseases such as Alzheimer’s and schizophrenia.

Researchers in the United States conducted extensive genetic analysis on so-called “organoids”, which can grow in a laboratory dish for up to 20 months.

They found that the artificial brain seems to grow according to the phase of the internal clock, which matches the development of the real baby’s brain.

These findings indicate that organoids can develop beyond the “fetal” stage, which is contrary to previous assumptions.

In view of this, brain organoids are likely to be able to mature to a certain level so that scientists can use them to study adult diseases such as dementia.

Brain organoids (pictured) grown from stem cells in the laboratory can

Brain organoids (pictured) grown from stem cells in the laboratory can develop “like a human brain” and can help clarify diseases such as Alzheimer’s and schizophrenia

Researchers in the United States conducted extensive genetic analysis on so-called

Researchers in the United States conducted extensive genetic analysis on so-called “organoids”, which can grow in a laboratory dish for up to 20 months.

The author of the paper and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) neurologist Daniel Geschwind (Daniel Geschwind) said: “Until now, no one has grown and characterized these organoids during this time.”

“It has not been shown that they will generalize the development of the human brain in a laboratory environment.”

‘This will be an important driving force in this field. We have shown that these organoids can mature and replicate many aspects of normal human development, which makes them a good model for studying human diseases in dishes. “He said.

In their research, the research team used so-called induced pluripotent stem cells to create brain organoids, which are capable of producing many different cell types.

The stem cells themselves come from skin and blood cells, and they are reprogrammed back to an embryonic state.

When the proper chemical mixing is carried out in the proper environment, the stem cells will grow into brain cells and organize themselves to produce a three-dimensional structure that faithfully replicates certain aspects of real human brain development.

Researchers are interested in growing organoids from stem cells because they may change the way we study how complex organs (such as the brain) develop and respond to diseases.

In fact, scientists are already using human brain organs to study neurological diseases and neurodevelopmental diseases, including autism, epilepsy and schizophrenia.

However, until now, it is still believed that the cells formed by organoids cannot develop beyond the same state as seen during fetal development-limiting the scope of these models.

The findings of this new study indicate that it is actually possible to grow organoid cells to such a mature level that researchers can also study diseases that develop during adulthood, such as dementia and schizophrenia.

Dr. Gerschwind said: “Stem cell models of human diseases have aroused great interest.”

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) paper author and neurologist Daniel Geschwind (Daniel Geschwind) said: “Until now, no one has grown and identified these organoids during this time. The human brain development is summarized in the laboratory environment,

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) paper author and neurologist Daniel Geschwind (Daniel Geschwind) said: “Until now, no one has grown and characterized these organoids during this time. “They are not shown. The development of the human brain will be summarized in a laboratory environment,” the picture shows the organoid

“This work represents an important milestone. It shows which aspects of human brain development are modeled with the highest fidelity, which specific genes perform well in vitro, and when to model them in the best way. “

Equally important, we provide a framework based on unbiased genome analysis to evaluate the effects of in vitro models on in vivo development and function modeling.

Aaron Gordon, the author of the paper and a biologist at the University of California, Los Angeles, said: “We show that these 3D brain organoids follow an internal clock that runs in parallel with events happening in the organism in a laboratory environment.”

“This is an amazing discovery-we demonstrated that they reached postpartum maturity approximately 280 days after culture, and then began to model various aspects of the infant’s brain, including known physiological changes in neurotransmitter signaling.”

All the findings of the study were published in the journal Nature Neuroscience.

What is Alzheimer’s disease?

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, degenerative brain disease in which the accumulation of abnormal proteins causes the death of nerve cells.

This destroys the transmitter that transmits information and shrinks the brain.

In the United States, more than 5 million people suffer from the disease, which is the sixth leading cause of death, and more than one million British people suffer from the disease.

what’s happenin?

When brain cells die, the functions they provide are lost.

This includes memory, direction, and the ability to think and reason.

The disease progresses slowly and gradually.

On average, patients can survive five to seven years after diagnosis, but some patients can survive ten to fifteen years.

Early symptoms:

  • Short-term memory loss
  • get lost
  • Behavior change
  • Mood swings
  • Difficulty handling money or making phone calls

Latest symptoms:

  • Severe memory loss, forgetting relatives, familiar objects or places
  • Anxiety and frustration about not being able to understand the world, leading to aggressive behavior
  • Eventually lose the ability to walk
  • There may be problems with eating
  • Most people will eventually need 24-hour care

Source: Alzheimer’s Association


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