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Merging boson stars can explain large-scale black hole collisions and prove the existence of dark matter



The merger of two boson stars could explain the largest black hole collision and prove the existence of dark matter

Artistic impression of the merger of two boson stars. Image courtesy: Nicolas Sanchis Gula and Rocio García Soto.

An international team of scientists led by the Galician Institute of High Energy Physics (IGFAE) and the University of Aveiro has shown that the worst black hole collision ever produced by the gravitational wave GW1

90521 may actually be even more mysterious: merging two boson stars. This will be the first evidence of the existence of these hypothetical objects, which are candidates for dark matter and are believed to account for 27% of the mass of the universe.

Gravitational waves are ripples that travel at the speed of light in the structure of time and space. These originated in the most violent events in the universe and carry information about their origins. Since 2015, two LIGO detectors in the United States and the Virgo detector in Cascina in Italy have detected and interpreted gravitational waves. So far, these detectors have observed about 50 gravity wave signals. All of these originated from the collision and fusion of black holes and neutron stars, thus enabling physicists to deepen their understanding of these celestial bodies.

However, the prospects for gravitational waves are much more than that, because they will eventually provide us with evidence of previously unobserved or even unexpected objects and shed light on current mysteries such as the nature of dark matter. However, the latter may have already happened.

In September 2020, the collaboration between LIGO and Virgo (LVC) announced the gravitational wave signal GW190521 to the world. According to their analysis, the signal was consistent with the collision of two black holes with masses 85 and 66 times the mass of the sun, which produced a final black hole with a mass of 142. The resulting black hole is a new, previously undiscovered black hole family: an intermediate-mass black hole. This discovery is crucial because such black holes are the missing link between two well-known black hole families: stellar mass black holes formed by the collapse of stars, and supermassive black holes exist in the center of almost every star. The Milky Way, including the Milky Way.

In addition, this observation poses a huge challenge. If we think that our understanding of how stars live and die is correct, then the most severely colliding black hole (85 solar masses) may not be formed by the collapse of the star at the end of its life cycle, causing a series of doubts. And the possibility of its origin.

In an article published today Medical letterA team of scientists led by Dr. Juan Calderón Bustillo of the Galician Institute of High Energy Physics (IGFAE) of the Joint Center of the University of Santiago de Compostela and the University of Galicia, and Dr. Nicolás Sanchis-Gual, a postdoctoral researcher in Kolkata, University of Aveiro and Lisbon Advanced Technology The collaborators of the College (University of Lisbon) and the University of Valencia, Monash University and the Chinese University of Hong Kong proposed another explanation for the source of the GW190521 signal: the collision of the two signals is called a foreign object called a boson star. One of the most likely candidates to explain dark matter. In their analysis, the research team was able to estimate the mass of the new particle composition in these stars, which is an ultra-light boson whose mass is billions of times smaller than that of electrons.

The team compared the GW190521 signal with computer simulations of the Boson-Star merger, and found that they are actually slightly better at interpreting the data than the analysis performed by LIGO and Virgo. It turns out that this source will have different properties than previously described. Dr. Calderón Bustillo said: “First, we no longer talk about collisions with black holes, which eliminates the problem of dealing with “forbidden” black holes. Second, since the merger of boson stars is weaker, we inferred closer distances than LIGO and Virgo estimated. The result is much larger. This leads to a much larger mass of the final black hole, about 250 solar masses, so the fact that we have witnessed the formation of intermediate-mass black holes still holds.”

Dr. Nicolás Sanchis-Gual said: “Boson stars are almost as compact as black holes, but unlike them, their surfaces are not’non-returnable’. When they collide, they will The formation of a boson star, which eventually becomes unstable, and eventually collapses into a black hole, and produces a signal consistent with that observed by LIGO and Virgo. It is composed of the material we usually know as the conventional star, and the boson star is composed of The composition of ultralight bosons as we know them. The most attractive candidates for what we call dark matter.”

The research team found that although the analysis tends to favor the black hole hypothesis, the boson star merger is actually the method of choice for the data, albeit in an inconclusive manner. Professor Jose A. Font from the University of Valencia said: “Our results show that according to the data, the two cases are almost indistinguishable, despite a slight preference for the boson star hypothesis. This is very exciting because our boson The dice-star model is so far, it is still very limited and still needs major improvement. The development of the model may provide greater evidence for this situation, and will also enable us to study under the assumption of the boson-star merger Previous observations of gravity waves.”

This result involves not only the first observation of boson stars, but also the observation of new particles of their structural unit (a type of ultralight boson). Professor Carlos Hudeiro from the University of Aveiro said: “One of the most fascinating results is that we can actually measure the mass of this putative new dark matter particle and discard the zero value with high confidence. Analyzing this and other gravitational wave observations, our results will provide the first observational evidence for long-term dark matter candidates.”


Researchers reveal the origin of merged black holes


More information:
Juan Calderón Bustillo, Nicolas Sanchis-Gual, Alejandro Torres-Forné, José A. Font, Avi Vajpeyi, etc. “The merger of GW190521 as a Proca star: the potential new vector boson is 8.7×10-13 eV”. Physical version number Lett 126, 081101. journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/…ysRevLett.126.081101

Provided by the Galician Institute of High Energy Physics



Citation: Merging boson stars can explain large-scale black hole collisions and prove the existence of dark matter (February 24, 2021) is February 24, 2021 from https://phys.org/news/2021-02-merging- .html retrieved by boson-stars-massive-black

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