In 1848, after 76 black enslaved persons boarded a ship for a large-scale escape, a white mob rioted in Washington to defend the rights of slave owners.
Lithographs of the abolition of slavery in the slave trade in Washington, DC, with the US Capitol in the background. The Summer of 2020 at the Library of Congress is not the first time the United States has seen protests and violence against the treatment of African Americans. On April 1
9, 1848, the record of Pearl’s arrest appeared in the Daily Trade Union newspaper in Washington, D.C. The Library of Congress predates the “Black Life” demonstrations. Before the demonstrations in the civil rights era, the racist controversy took place. Throw the country into chaos. capital. But the riots in Washington, DC were led by enslaving mobs. In the spring of 1848, the conspirators orchestrated one of the largest escapees from slavery in American history. In this way, they triggered a crisis that entangled advocates of the abolition of slavery, white supremacists, the press and even the president. A black black man in Washington, Daniel Bell, wanted to free his enslaved wife, children and grandsons. He quoted the promise of freedom from the former owner, but tried to pass the court but failed to do so. Therefore, he began to plan to escape. The lawyer he consulted knew that others were eager to escape a life of slavery. He and Bell decided to help them all. They approached Daniel Drayton. He was a navy captain who led a small group of fugitives to freedom. He agreed to rent the larger boat for 100 dollars. In turn, Drayton paid $100 to captain Edward Sayres to charter his schooner “Pearl”. On the evening of April 15, Pearl left Washington. The 76 black men who quietly left the nearby farm, women and children hid under the deck. Drayton and Sayres sailed to the Potomac River. They were driven to Philadelphia, where slavery was illegal. The fugitive did not go very far. The owner quickly noticed their absence and formed a team to find them. When Pearl entered the Chesapeake Bay on April 17, the hull of the ship overtook and occupied Pearl. The next day, the fugitives and their white bettors marched through Washington and were thrown into the city jail. The white population in the capital riots in Washington is angry at the challenge of the conspirators to the social order, so they want to punish someone. As Drayton and Sayres awaited jail time, white supremacists turned to anti-abolitionist news. Anti-slavery people published several newspapers to promote their cause. In Washington, Gamaliel Bailey Jr. (Gamaliel Bailey Jr.) founded the National Era in 1847. Bailey and his paper opposed attempts to escape prison, but supported the end of the slave trade and ultimately the end of slavery itself. Thousands of people gathered outside the National Times Office on the evening of April 18-19. They gave speeches and spread false rumors about the reporter’s involvement in Pearl’s escape. According to reports, the leaders of the protesters included US government employees. The protesters quickly became violent. They threw stones at the building on the first night and planned to destroy it the next day. However, when they faced the local police for two nights, they dispersed. Gamaliel Bailey Jr., the publisher of abolitionist newspapers, has been attacked by enslavement mobs in its press. Mathew Brady, photographer/Massachusetts State Historical Society/Wikipedia President’s intervention in the crisis began with slavery. In 1848, of the 3 million African Americans, nearly 90% were restrained. They live and work on farms in the south. These farms are owned by white people and they claim to be property. Every year, thousands of people flee in search of freedom. President James K. Polk defended slavery and enriched himself with it. He has more than 50 workers on a cotton plantation in Mississippi. When editing his letters (the last volume has just been published), I often read his complaints about escaping from there. Like other slave owners, he relied on relatives and paid agents to capture, repatriate and severely punish fugitives. President James K. Polk helped quell the rioters. N. Currier, Lithograph/Library of Congress After Pearl escaped, Polk shared the mob’s belief in white supremacy and their outrage against slavery. He also expressed hostility towards abolitionists and newspapers that were in favor of reforms, and blamed his diary throughout the incident: “The atrocities caused by theft or seduction of slaves… caused uproar and threats in the abolition of the press. Violence.” However, by April 20, the President was worried about violence in Washington. The involvement of federal employees particularly troubled him. He ordered them to “avoid participating in all scenes of riots or violence” and threatened those who disobeyed the prosecution. Polk also instructed American Deputy Marshal Thomas Woodward (Thomas Woodward) to cooperate with local law enforcement agencies to stop the riots. As Polk said to an adviser, he intends to “exercise all the powers granted by the Constitution…the president believes in the power of the president” to restore peace. effective. When the mob regrouped in the national era on the night of the 20th, they were successfully countered by city and federal officials. About 200 rioters moved to Bailey’s home and threatened to use tar and feathers for Bai Mao. But he managed to disappoint them and even won the applause of the hostile crowd before. The violence is over. After Pearl was arrested, this poster was produced by the Washington, DC government to warn white citizens who feared the slave rebellion against riots or violence. The Library of Congress/Wikipedia losers and winners Captain Drayton and Captain Sell put in a tremendous amount of effort for this. They were convicted of illegally transporting slaves and were imprisoned until President Millard Fillmore pardoned them in 1852. To make matters worse, they help people who escaped. The abolitionists gained very little freedom, but almost everyone restored slavery. Many people are sold farther south, farther away from their dreams of freedom than ever before. Except for the broken windows, the era of the country was unscathed. The municipal government and federal authorities have protected the freedom of the press to express unpopular opinions by ending the riots. The rioters also came out. No one has been charged with a crime. Polk may benefit the most. He avoided major bloodshed on the watch and won praise for his cooperation with the local police. But he never questioned the complaints of the mob or the racist society they defended. [Get the best of The Conversation, every weekend. Sign up for our weekly newsletter.]This article is republished from The Conversation, a non-profit news website dedicated to sharing the ideas of academic experts. Its author: the American University Michael David Cohen. Read more: John Brown was a violent crusader, but he opened up an ethical path, and prudent Lincoln followed an ethical path to end slavery. Receive funding from the National Board of History Publication and Records, the Summerlee Foundation and the Watson-Brown Foundation. He has previously received grants from the William G. Pomerol Foundation, the Dela Plain Foundation, the National Humanities Foundation, and the Tennessee History Council. He is a member of the Association of Documentary Editors, the American Historical Association, the Organization of American Historians, and the Southern Historical Association.