Beirut (Associated Press) On November 13, 1970, a young air force officer from the mountainous coast of Syria launched a bloodless coup. This is the latest military acquisition in succession since France’s independence from France in 1946. There is no reason to believe that this will be the last military acquisition.
However, 50 years later, Hafez Assad’s family still rules Syria.
The country is in the ashes of a decade of civil war, which killed half a million people, displaced half of the population, and destroyed the economy. The entire region has lost government control. But Hafiz̵
His rule (half used for war) differs in some respects from that of his father-it depends on allies such as Iran and Russia, not projecting Arab nationalism, but nepotism rather than socialism. The tools are the same: suppression, refusal to compromise and cruel bloodshed.
Like the Castro family in Cuba and the Kim dynasty in North Korea, the Assads affixed their names to their countries in a way that few non-monarch rulers did.
It is unclear whether the government intends to commemorate the 50th anniversary this year. Despite the fanfare on anniversaries in previous years, the celebrations during the war were relatively plain.
“There is no doubt that the 50-year Assad family rule was cruel, cruel and self-deceiving. It left the country. This can only be described as a moment of rupture, failure and almost forgotten,” associate Neil Kui Liam (Neil Quilliam) said. In the Middle East and North Africa plan for Chatham House.
After taking over in 1970, Hafez Assad consolidated power. He brought members of the Alawite sect (a Sunni majority minority in Syria) into important positions and established a Soviet-style single-party police state.
His power is absolute. His Mukhabarat (or intelligence personnel) is everywhere.
He turned Syria into a power in the Middle East. In the Arab world, his uncompromising stance on the Golan Heights has won respect, which was the strategic commanding height that Israel lost in the 1967 war. He participated in the peace talks hosted by the United States and sometimes seemed to ease, only to frustrate the Americans by retreating and demanding more territory.
In 1981, in the war between Iraq and Iran, he joined the Iranians against the entire Arab world and supported Saddam Hussein-establishing an alliance that would help save his son in the future. After Saddam invaded in 1990, he supported a coalition led by the United States to liberate Kuwait and won the trust of Americans.
Former U.S. President Clinton has met with Assad many times. He wrote in his memoir “My Life”: “He is a cruel but smart man who once wiped out the entire village as a lesson to his opponent.
Clinton was referring to the 1982 Hama massacre, where security forces killed thousands of Muslim Brotherhood uprisings.
The massacre was the most notorious massacre in the modern Middle East, and this hatred provoked another uprising against his son years later.
“A key factor for the survival of the Assad regime is: uncompromising at home, using geopolitical changes on a regional and global scale, and waiting for the enemy to come out,” “Assad or We Burn the Country: The Life of a Family” Said Sam Dag, the author of the book. The desire for power destroyed Syria. ”
Challenges and opportunities
Bashar Assad borrowed heavily from that script after his father died in 2000. Unlike his father, critics said that he repeatedly wasted opportunities and went too far.
First to be welcomed as a reformer and modernizer, Bashar, a British-trained ophthalmologist, opened the country and allowed political debate. Starting from the September 11 attack on the United States, he quickly backed down, facing challenges and a rapidly changing world.
He opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq led by the United States, worried that he would be the next. He allowed foreign fighters to enter Iraq from his territory, intensifying the rebellion against American occupation and angering Americans.
After Damascus was accused of assassinating former prime minister Rafik Hariri (Rafik Hariri), he was forced to end Syria’s long-term rule of Lebanon. Nevertheless, he has strengthened his ties with Lebanese Hezbollah.
Like his father, Bashar Assad has a noble family to use his powers-younger, more modern generation, but many Syrians think he is more greedy in accumulating wealth.
The most serious challenge facing the Assad family came from the Arab Spring uprising that swept the region, which arrived in Syria in March 2011.
His response to the initial peaceful protest was to release the security forces to put it out. Instead, protests increased and later turned into armed rebellions supported by Turkey, the United States and the Gulf Arab states. His army was fragmented.
As his army neared collapse, Assad opened his territory to the Russian and Iranian military and their proxies. The city was shattered. He was accused of using chemical weapons against his own people and mass killing or imprisoning opponents. Millions of people fled to Europe or other regions.
In most parts of the world, he became a pariah. But Assad cleverly portrayed the war as a choice between his rule and Islamic extremists including the Islamic State group. Many Syrians and even European countries have begun to believe that this is a secondary evil.
In the end, he effectively eliminated the military threat Against him. It is almost certain that he will win next year’s presidential election in the shattered Syrian shell next year.
Dag still said that the war had changed the Syrians in an irreversible way. Economic collapse and increasing difficulties may change the calculation method.
He said: “A whole generation has been awakened, and they will eventually find a way to recapture the country and its future.”
When the results of the U.S. election showed that Joe Biden had won, the Syrian opposition troll meme mocked that the Assads had performed more than nine U.S. presidents since Richard Nixon.
“In my life, my fellow Syrians had to vote for the only president four times… Hafez Assad. His son is still the president. After i moved to the United States, I voted for six different President,” wrote Zaher Sahloul, a Syrian-American physician based in Chicago, who left Syria in 1989. “I hope my home country can witness free elections one day.
Culiham said that if Hafez Assad did not take the lead as Bashar’s successor, his legacy might look very different.
He said: “It was not a good thing, but Bashar’s legacy will eclipse Assad’s legacy and make it a synonym for brutal, deliberate destruction of a great country and cruel and beautiful people.”