According to a small but highly controlled study in the National Parks of the United States, people on a low-fat plant-based diet have fewer calories per day compared with people on a low-carbohydrate, animal-based diet, but their insulin and blood sugar levels Higher Institute of Health. This study, led by researchers from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), compared the effects of two diets on calorie intake, hormone levels, body weight and more.The research results were published today (January 21
“High-fat foods are thought to cause excessive calorie intake because they consume a lot of calories per bite.” In addition, high-carbohydrate foods can cause large fluctuations in blood sugar and insulin, which may increase hunger and lead to overeating. . “The lead author of the study, NIDDK senior researcher Dr. Kevin Hall said. “Our study aims to determine whether a high-carbohydrate or high-fat diet will lead to more calorie intake. “
Researchers housed 20 non-diabetic adults in the Metabolic Clinical Laboratory of the Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health for four consecutive weeks. Participants (11 men and 9 women) received a plant-based low-fat diet or an animal-based low-carbohydrate diet for two weeks, and then immediately underwent an alternative diet for two weeks. A low-fat diet is rich in carbohydrates. A low-carb diet is rich in fat. Both diets are minimally processed and contain equal amounts of non-starchy vegetables. Participants were given three meals a day, plus snacks, and they were free to eat.
The main results show that people on a low-fat diet eat 550 to 700 fewer calories a day than people on a low-carbohydrate diet. Although calorie intake differed greatly, participants reported no difference in hunger, dining pleasure, or satiety between the two diets. Participants lost weight on both diets, but only a low-fat diet led to a substantial reduction in body fat.
“Although eating foods rich in high-glycemic carbohydrates can cause significant fluctuations in blood sugar and insulin, people who consume a plant-based low-fat diet significantly reduce their calorie intake and reduce body fat. This suggests that this idea It’s a challenge. High-carbohydrate diets themselves can cause people to overeat. On the other hand, animal-based low-carbohydrate diets, despite being high in fat, did not cause weight gain.”
These findings indicate that the factors that cause overeating and weight gain are more complex than the amount of carbohydrates or fat in the diet. For example, Hall’s laboratory in 2019 showed that diets rich in ultra-processed foods lead to overeating and weight gain compared to minimally processed diets that match carbohydrates and fats.
The plant-based low-fat diet contains 10.3% fat and 75.2% carbohydrates, while the animal-based low-carbohydrate diet contains 10% carbohydrates and 75.8% fat. Although the low-carbohydrate diet has twice as many calories per gram of food as the low-fat diet, both diets contained approximately 14% protein and matched the subjects’ total calories. On a low-fat menu, dinner might include roasted sweet potatoes, chickpeas, broccoli, and oranges, while a low-carb dinner might be beef and cauliflower rice. The subject can eat what they eat, no matter how much they choose.
Interestingly, our findings indicate that both diets are beneficial, at least in the short term. Low-fat plant-based diets help suppress appetite, while animal-based low-carbohydrate diets can reduce insulin and glucose levels and keep them stable. “We don’t yet know whether these differences will continue in the long term.”
The researchers pointed out that the study was not designed to provide dietary recommendations for weight loss. If participants actively try to lose weight, the results may be different. In addition, all meals are prepared and provided to hospitalized patients, which may make it difficult to repeat the results outside the laboratory, because factors such as food cost, food supply and meal preparation restrictions may make adherence to the diet become difficult.However, a strictly controlled clinical environment can ensure that food intake and accuracy data.
“To help us get good nutrition, rigorous science is essential-given today’s Coronavirus disease NIDDK Director Griffin P. Rodgers, MD, said that the pandemic is because we aim to identify strategies that help us stay healthy. Therefore, “this research brings us closer to answering people’s long-standing questions about how diet affects health. .”
Reference: Kevin D. Hall, Juen Guo, Amber B. Courville, James Boring, Robert Brychta, Kong Y’s “Effects of plant-based low-fat diet and animal-based ketogenic diet on voluntary energy intake” Chen, Valerie Darcey, Ciaran G. Forde, Ahmed M. Gharib, Isabelle Gallagher, Rebecca Howard, Paule V. Joseph, Lauren Milley, Ronald Ouwerkerk, Klaudia Raisinger, Irene Rozga, Alex Schick, Michael Stagliano, Stephan Torres, Mary Walter, Peter Walter (Peter Walter) ), Shanna Yang (Yang Shanna) and Stephanie T. Chung (Stephanie T. Chung), January 21, 2021, Natural medicine.
DOI: 10.1038 / s41591-020-01209-1
The research was supported by NIDDK’s internal research program. NIH’s other support came from the National Institute of Nursing, which received grant 1Z1ANR000035-01.