In the past 25 years, astronomers have discovered various exoplanets made of rocks, ice, and natural gas due to the construction of astronomical instruments designed specifically for searching for planets. Moreover, by using a combination of different observation techniques, they have been able to determine a large number of masses, sizes, and planet densities, which helps them estimate their internal composition and increase the number of planets found outside the planet. Solar system.
However, it is very difficult to study the atmosphere of rocky planets, which will enable them to fully characterize exoplanets similar to the Earth. Therefore, the atmospheric model of the rocky planet is still untested.
Therefore, it is interesting that the Canarias astronomers (Calar Alto uses near-infrared and optical Eschel spectrometers to detect exogenous M dwarfs with high resolution) are a consortium formed by the Canarias Institute of Astronomy (IAC) A study led by astronomer Trifon Trifonov of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany published a study about the orbit near the nearby red dwarf star Gliese 486 A hot super-Earth was discovered on Earth, only 26 light-years away from the planet. sun.
To this end, the scientists used a combination of transmission photometry and radial velocity spectroscopy, and used MuSCAT2 on the 1
The planet they discovered is called Gliese 486b, and its mass is 2.8 times that of the Earth, which is only 30% larger. Enric Pallé, an IAC researcher and co-author of the paper, explained: “Calculating the average density based on the mass and radius measurements, we infer that its composition is similar to that of Venus or the Earth, with a metallic core inside. .”article.
Gliese 486b orbits its host star 2.5 million kilometers in a circular path every 1.5 days. Despite being very close to the star, the planet may have retained part of its original atmosphere (stars are much cooler than our sun), so it is an ideal telescope for more detailed observations in space and on the ground for the next generation.
For Trifonov, “The fact that the planet is too close to the sun is exciting because powerful telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope and ELT (Extra Large Telescope) under construction can be used to study it in more detail.”
Gliese 486b takes the same time to rotate along its axis as it takes to rotate around its host star, so it always has the same side facing the star. Although Gris 486 is weaker and cooler than the sun, the radiation is so strong that the planet’s surface is heated to at least 700K (about 430 degrees Celsius). Therefore, the surface of Gliese 486b may be more like the surface of Venus, while the surface of the Earth is hotter, with dry terrain, and burning lava rivers. However, unlike Venus, the atmosphere of Gris 486b may be thin.
Calculations using existing planetary atmospheric models can be consistent with hot surface and thin atmosphere scenarios, because stellar radiation will evaporate the atmosphere, and planetary gravity will suppress the atmosphere. Today, it is difficult to determine the balance between the two donations.
Astrobiology Center researcher José Antonio Caballero explained: “The discovery of Gliese 486b is really lucky. If the temperature rises to about 100 degrees, its entire surface will be lava, and its atmosphere Will be evaporated rocks.” CAB, CSIC-INTA) and co-author of the article. “On the other hand, if the temperature of Gliese 486b is about 100 degrees lower, then it is not suitable for follow-up observation.”
Future planned observations by the CARMENES team will attempt to determine its orbital inclination, which will allow Gliese 486b to cross the line of sight between us and the surface of the star, obscure some of its light, and create a so-called transit.
They will also use emission spectroscopy to perform spectroscopic measurements, before disappearing in the orbit of the star Gliese 486b, when the hemisphere illuminated by the star is visible as the phase of the planet (similar to our moon phase). The observed spectrum will contain information about the condition of the hot surface of the planet being illuminated.
Trifonov admits: “We can’t wait until the new telescopes come out.” “The results we might get with them will help us better understand the atmospheres of rocky planets, their extensions, their extremely high densities, their composition, and their composition. The impact on the distribution of energy around the planet.
The CARMENES project consists of 11 research institutions in Spain and Germany. Its purpose is to use the spectrometer on the 3.5 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory to monitor 350 red dwarfs to find planets like the Earth (Spain). This study also used spectral measurements to infer the quality of Gliese 486b. The MAROON-X instrument was used to observe on Gemini North (8.1m) in the United States. The archived data came from the Keck 10 m telescope in the United States and the ESO 3.6 m telescope in Chile.
The photometric observation comes from NASA’s TESS (Transitional Exoplanet Survey Satellite) space observatory. The data is the basis for obtaining the planet’s radius. The data comes from the MuSCAT2 instrument on the 1.52m Carlos Sánchez telescope at the Ted Observatory (Spain). Chile’s LCOGT (Las Cumbres Observing Global Telescope) and so on.
Super-Earth discovered orbiting in nearby red dwarf stars
T. Trifonov et al. Transit rocky exoplanets suitable for atmospheric surveys nearby. science (2021). science.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi…1126 / science.abd7645
Provided by the Canarias Space Institute
Citation: Discovery of Super-Earth: Data will represent the planetary atmosphere model retrieved from https://phys.org/news/2021-03-super-earth-planetary-atmosphere.html on March 4, 2021 (March 4, 2021 Day) characteristics.
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