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Home / Business / Coronavirus vaccine tracker: How close are we to the vaccine? |World News

Coronavirus vaccine tracker: How close are we to the vaccine? |World News



Pre-clinical

Vaccines that have not been used in human trials

132

Phase 1

Vaccines in small safety trials

14

Phase 2

Vaccines to expand safety trials

8

The third stage

Vaccines in large-scale efficacy trials

2

Approved

Vaccines approved for general use

0

Source: WHO. Last updated: July 2

Researchers around the world are racing to develop vaccines against Covid-19, and the World Health Organization (WHO) now tracks more than 140 candidate vaccines.

Vaccines usually require years of testing and mass production, but scientists hope to develop coronavirus vaccines within 12 to 18 months.

Vaccines mimic viruses—or parts of viruses—to prevent infection and stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies. They must follow higher safety standards than other medicines because they have been given to millions of healthy people.

How to test the vaccine?

inside Preclinical stage After testing, the researchers vaccinated the animal to see if it would trigger an immune response.

In Phase 1 After clinical testing, the vaccine is given to a small group of people to determine whether it is safe and to further understand the immune response it provokes.

In Phase 2This vaccine can be used by hundreds of people, so scientists can learn more about its safety and correct dosage.

In The third stageThis vaccine has been given to thousands of people to confirm its safety-including rare side effects-and effectiveness. These trials involved a control group given a placebo.

Vaccines in clinical trials

Ongoing stage

Stage completed

Oxford University/AstraZeneca

The Oxford University vaccine is provided through the chimpanzee virus (called the vaccine carrier). This vector contains the genetic code for protein spikes found in coronaviruses and triggers a strong immune response in the human body. The vaccine is in a phase 2/3 joint trial in the United Kingdom and the United States.
Recently entered phase 3 trials in South Africa and Brazil.

CanSino Biologics Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology

According to reports, the vaccine developed by China CanSino Biologics and the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, a university close to the Chinese military, showed encouraging results in the second phase of the test, although the trial data has not yet been published. The vaccine is currently approved for military use, but its distribution is unclear.

American biotechnology company Moderna is developing a candidate vaccine that uses Messenger RNA (mRNA for short) to trick the body into producing viral proteins. Have not approved any mRNA vaccines for infectious diseases, and Moderna
Never put products on the market. But proponents of this vaccine say that it may be easier to mass produce than traditional vaccines.

Wuhan Institute of Biological Products

Beijing Institute of Biological Products

BioNTech/Fosun Pharmaceutical/Pfizer

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences

Gamma Institute

Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./GSK/Dynavax

Anhui Zhifei Longkang Biopharmaceutical/Microbiology Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences

PLA Academy of Military Sciences/Walvax Biotechnology Company.

University of Melbourne/Murdoch Institute for Children

The Murdoch Children’s Institute in Australia is using a nearly 100-year-old tuberculosis vaccine for phase 3 trials. It is believed that this vaccine cannot directly prevent Covid-19, but may enhance the body’s non-specific immune response.

Source: WHO. Last updated: July 2


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