The Oxford University vaccine is provided through the chimpanzee virus (called the vaccine carrier). This vector contains the genetic code for protein spikes found in coronaviruses and triggers a strong immune response in the human body. The vaccine is in a phase 2/3 joint trial in the United Kingdom and the United States.
Recently entered phase 3 trials in South Africa and Brazil.
CanSino Biologics Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
According to reports, the vaccine developed by China CanSino Biologics and the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, a university close to the Chinese military, showed encouraging results in the second phase of the test, although the trial data has not yet been published. The vaccine is currently approved for military use, but its distribution is unclear.
American biotechnology company Moderna is developing a candidate vaccine that uses Messenger RNA (mRNA for short) to trick the body into producing viral proteins. Have not approved any mRNA vaccines for infectious diseases, and Moderna
Never put products on the market. But proponents of this vaccine say that it may be easier to mass produce than traditional vaccines.
Wuhan Institute of Biological Products
Beijing Institute of Biological Products
Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./GSK/Dynavax
Anhui Zhifei Longkang Biopharmaceutical/Microbiology Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences
PLA Academy of Military Sciences/Walvax Biotechnology Company.
University of Melbourne/Murdoch Institute for Children
The Murdoch Children’s Institute in Australia is using a nearly 100-year-old tuberculosis vaccine for phase 3 trials. It is believed that this vaccine cannot directly prevent Covid-19, but may enhance the body’s non-specific immune response.