Astronomers have discovered what would happen if a huge black hole did not interfere with the life of galaxy clusters. They used NASA̵
A galaxy cluster contains hundreds of galaxies, which are filled with hot, X-ray-emitting gas whose mass exceeds the total mass of all galaxies. The ejection of matter propelled by a supermassive black hole in the central galaxy of the cluster usually prevents this hot gas from cooling and forming a large number of stars. This heating allows the supermassive black hole to influence or control the activity and evolution of its host cluster.
But what happens if the black hole stops moving? The galaxy cluster SpARCS104922.6 + 564032.5 (SpARCS1049 for short), located 9.9 billion light-years away from Earth, is providing an answer.
According to observations by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope, astronomers have previously discovered that in SpARCS1049, stars form at an unusually high mass rate of about 900 new suns each year. This is 300 times faster than the formation of stars in the Milky Way. (According to the speed seen in SpARCS1049, all stars in the Milky Way can be formed within 100 million years, which is a very short time compared to the age of our Milky Way over 10 billion years.)
Julie Hlavacek-Larrondo of the University of Montreal, Canada, who led the study, said: “This reminds me of the old expression that when the cat leaves, the mouse will play. “The cats or black holes here are quiet, and the mice or stars are busy.”
This angry star formation occurred about 80,000 light-years away from the center of SpARCS1049, located outside any galaxy in the cluster. Astronomers have been asking: What causes this huge star birth cycle?
The answer may come from the new Chandra data, revealing the behavior of hot air in SpARCS1049. In most star clusters, the temperature of the gas is about 65 million degrees. However, where stars are formed, the gas is denser than average and has cooled to a temperature of only about 10 million degrees. The presence of this colder gas indicates that other undiscovered gas storages have cooled to even lower temperatures, which can form a large number of stars.
Carter Rhea, a co-author of the University of Montreal, said: “If there is no black hole actively injecting energy into the surrounding environment, the gas can be cooled to an astonishing rate of star formation.” “The closure of this black hole may be the key to the formation of stars in the early universe. method.”
Although there are many examples that the energy injected by black holes into the surrounding environment can reduce the rate of star formation by tens of thousands or thousands of times or more, these clusters are usually only a few hundred million light-years away from the Earth, and are more than SpARCS1049.
For SpARCS1049, astronomers see no signs that the supermassive black holes in the central galaxy are actively attracting matter. For example, there is no evidence that a jet of matter blows away from a black hole of radio wavelength, or an X-ray source is emitted from the middle of the Milky Way, indicating that the matter is heated as it falls toward the black hole.
Co-author McGill’s Tracy Webb said: “Many astronomers believe that without the intervention of black holes, star formation will get out of control.” McGill’s Tracy Webb (Tracy Webb) spoke with NASA in 2015 The Bureau’s Spitzer Space Telescope first discovered SpARCS1049. “Now we have observational evidence that this actually happened.”
Why is the black hole so quiet? The position difference between the densest gas observed and the central galaxy may be the reason. This means that the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy is starving. The loss of the fuel source used for the black hole prevents explosions and allows the gas to cool unimpeded, with the densest gas cooling fastest. One explanation for this offset is that two smaller clusters of galaxies collided at some point in the past to form SpARCS 1049, which removed the densest gas from the central galaxy.
The paper describing these results was published in Astrophysical Journal Letter.
The blackest hole in the universe
Evidence of runaway gas cooling without feedback from supermassive black holes during the cluster formation period, arXiv: 2007.15660 [astro-ph.GA] arxiv.org/abs/2007.15660
Courtesy of Chandra X-ray Center
Citation: Black hole failed to perform its duties (August 3, 2020), retrieved from https://phys.org/news/2020-08-black-hole-job.html on August 3, 2020
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