Dusan Vranic/Associated Press
President Trump has refined his foreign policy as “America First.” In practice, the result is often friction with allies, withdrawal from international agreements, and the reduction of the US’s international dominance that has been passed down from generation to generation.
President-elect Biden hopes to return to a more traditional American posture: to have long-term partnerships to pick up, and a renewed commitment to organizations such as NATO and the United States this time at the front and center of the global stage.
Biden wrote in a long article: “The world has no self-organization.” Foreign affairs March. “For seventy years, during the presidency of the Democratic and Republican parties, the United States has played a leading role until the rules are established, agreements are reached, and institutions that guide relations between nations and promote collective security and prosperity are infused-until Trump.”
Trump refused to accept the election results. However, from supportive tweets by many foreign leaders to street celebrations, Biden’s election victory has been well received worldwide. Nevertheless, there are still many challenges in turning his worldview into reality.
Some American partners no longer believe that Washington is reliable. China is challenging the US leadership in Asia. The US military is still in trouble in the deadlocked Middle East conflict, and Biden began to support the Senate nearly two decades ago.
The president-elect has his criticism. Robert Gates, who served as Secretary of Defense when Biden was vice president, wrote in his memoirs that Biden was a “righteous man.” But he went on to say: “I think he was wrong on almost all major foreign policy and national security issues in the past 40 years.”
The following is a summary of Biden’s position on major issues:
Reconnect with allies
One of Biden’s initial foreign policy moves may be a diplomatic offensive, aimed at repairing relations with allies, especially in Europe.
Trump asked NATO members to pay more for collective security arrangements, and now there are many. But Trump also often questioned NATO’s value and cost, which aroused malice. Some countries in Europe and other regions have begun to reconsider their dependence on the United States and consider alternatives.
Nevertheless, Biden is still expected to receive a generally positive response. Biden has extensive foreign policy experience and started with a mature mainstream script that will make many American allies familiar with and reassure.
Biden said in his speech: “As President, I am not only going to restore our historic partnership; I will lead efforts to reimagine them for the world we face today.” Foreign affairs.
Trump withdrew the United States from the Paris climate agreement, saying that it put an undue burden on the US economy. Biden said the United States will rejoin the agreement on the first day of its administration.
Biden also said that the United States will return to the World Health Organization. After the coronavirus pandemic, Trump left the organization. The President said that the WHO is controlled by China.
Trump also unilaterally withdrew from the Iran nuclear agreement negotiated by the United States and other world powers, and signed the agreement in 2015 when Biden became the vice president. With the US withdrawing from the deal, Iran has exceeded certain restrictions imposed on its nuclear program.
Biden said that Iran “must restore strict adherence to the agreement. If I do so, I will rejoin the agreement and use our new diplomatic commitments to strengthen and expand this agreement with allies.”
Afghanistan and Iraq war
As a senator, Biden supported the US wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. In these two countries, the United States still has thousands of soldiers, and there is a small unit in Syria.
But now he said: “A long time has passed since the end of the eternal war. This war has cost the United States countless blood and treasure. As I have long argued, we should remove most of our troops from Take home from the war between Afghanistan and Afghanistan. The Middle East defines our mission as defeating Al Qaeda and the Islamic State.”
For Biden, this means keeping a small number of US troops in the area to focus on counter-terrorism.
Biden said: “There is a big difference between the large-scale open deployment of thousands of U.S. combat forces that must end and the use of hundreds of special forces soldiers and intelligence assets to support local partners.” Small missions are military, economic and politically sustainable.”
Biden may soon face a difficult decision. A preliminary agreement with the Taliban requires the United States to withdraw approximately 4,500 soldiers from Afghanistan by May.
The US and Afghan governments are trying to reach a permanent peace agreement with the Taliban, but the violence in the country has not stopped.
As a senator and vice president, Biden is an important part of a bipartisan strategy that encourages the United States to engage with China and hopes that Beijing will mature into a responsible global actor.
In the past few years, the mood in the United States has changed dramatically, with Republicans and Democrats calling for a stronger attitude. Trump imposed tariffs on Chinese imports, triggering a trade war, and overall relations are becoming increasingly tense.
Biden said that although he has not clarified his plan, he will face Beijing.
Biden wrote in the article: “The United States really needs to be tough on China. If China takes action, it will continue to snatch the technology and intellectual property rights of the United States and American companies.” Foreign affairs.
The US military now sees China as the biggest long-term threat, and Biden supports efforts to strengthen US security arrangements with partners in the region.
Biden said the United States should “reinvest in treaty alliances with Australia, Japan, and South Korea, and deepen partnerships from India to Indonesia.”
Trump’s strange relationship with Russia, and his refusal to criticize President Vladimir Putin, have always characterized his foreign policy and his entire presidency.
Biden said nothing when talking about Russia.
Biden wrote: “We must cause actual losses to Russia in violation of international norms and stand with Russian civil society, which has repeatedly boycotted President Putin’s dictatorship.”
Nevertheless, the United States and Russia will have to cooperate on certain issues. Biden said he will seek to expand the scope of the “New START” treaty, which regulates the nuclear arsenals of the two countries. He needs to work fast-the agreement will expire in February.
Greg Myre is a national security reporter for NPR.Follow him @ gregmyre1.