About five years ago, humans had not discovered gravity waves.
Now, observations are pouring in at an alarming rate. In the six months last year, LIGO’s collaboration with Virgo detected an average of 1.5 gravity wave events per week.
From April 1st to October 1st, 2019, the upgraded LIGO and Virgo interferometers detected 39 new gravitational wave events: due to huge collisions between neutron stars or black holes, shock waves rippled throughout time and space. In total, Gravity Wave Transient Catalog 2 (GWTC-2) now has 50 such events.
This provides us with the most complete census of black holes in the toolkit. It represents a series of black holes that have not only never been discovered, but also reveal the evolution and remaining lives of previously unobserved binary stars.
Christopher Berry, a member of the LIGO Scientific Cooperation Organization (LSC) and an astronomer at Northwestern University, said: “Gravitational wave astronomy is revolutionary-revealing to us the hidden life of black holes and neutron stars.”
“In just five years, we have gone from ignoring the existence of binary black holes to having more than 40 catalogs. The third observation run has produced more discoveries than ever before. Combining them with early discoveries, portraying A beautiful picture of the rich species of the universe. Binary file.”
You have heard of some new discoveries brought about by this observation.
GW 190412 (the gravitational wave event is named after its discovery date) is the first black hole collision in which the masses of the two black holes do not match at all; all other black hole collisions detected previously involve more or less equal mass binary files.
GW 190425 is believed to have come from a collision between two neutron stars, and only the second one was discovered (the first one was in August 2017).
GW 190521 finally confirmed that there is an elusive “medium-weight” black hole among the supermassive giants of stellar mass.
GW 190814 is the first collision involving an object in the “mass gap” between a neutron star and a black hole.
Maya Fishbach, an astronomer at Northwestern University and LSC, said: “So far, the third observation of LIGO and Virgo has produced many surprises.”
“After the second observation, I thought we had seen the full spectrum of a binary black hole, but the landscape of black holes was much richer and more diverse than I thought. I am very happy to see that future observations will teach What about us.”
That is not necessary for all new data transfers. The two events GW 190426_152155 and GW 190924_021846 are excellent. Yes, these names are longer: as we detect more and more events, the date may not be enough to distinguish them, so the new naming convention is to include the time in UTC.
“One of our new discoveries, GW 190426_152155, may be a merger of about six solar masses of black holes and neutron stars. Unfortunately, the signal is quite weak, so we can’t be completely sure,” said Albert astronomer Serguei Ossokine. Einstein Institute, Bonnstein, Germany.
“GW 190924_021846 is of course the merger of the two slightest black holes we have seen so far. One has a combined mass of six suns, and the other has a combined mass of nine suns. The combined signal comes from a smaller weight object, For example, GW 190814, but we are not sure whether it is a black hole.”
The new black hole and neutron star merger have been described in the four preprints.
The first paper classified 39 new events. The second paper reconstructed the mass and spin distributions of 47 merged events found in the entire GWTC-2 catalog, and estimated the collision rate of black holes and neutron stars. The third paper struggled to find the gamma-ray burst (not found) related to the merger event. The fourth paper evaluates the data based on the prediction of general relativity; spoiler, general relativity is completely valid.
In general, the new collection of combined events is not just a way to study conflict. It provides us with a way to directly study black holes, which are difficult to detect because they do not emit detectable radiation.
Thanks to gravitational waves, we know much more about these objects than a year ago. Start snowballing from here.
Berry said: “The merging of black holes and neutron star binaries is a unique laboratory.”
“We can use them to study gravity-Einstein’s general theory of relativity has passed all the tests so far-and the astrophysics of how mass stars live. LIGO and Virgo have changed our ability to observe these binary stars, and with The improvement of the detector will only speed up the discovery.”
LIGO has uploaded the preprint to its website while awaiting peer review. They can be found here, here, here and here.