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As U.S. efforts increase, more COVID-19 vaccines are being prepared



As states continue to roll out rare first shots of vaccines to countries eagerly awaiting relief from the catastrophic outbreak, the United States began research on another candidate COVID-19 vaccine on Monday.

Public health experts say that in addition to the two vaccines currently being distributed, there are more options-one manufactured by Pfizer and its German partner BioNTech, and the other Moderna-for accumulating enough for the country and the world The vaccine is crucial.

The candidate made by Novavax Inc. is the fifth candidate for the final stage of testing in the United States. It takes about 30,000 volunteers to prove whether this injection (unlike Pfizer and Moderna competitors) is really effective and safe.

Dr. Anthony Fauci said: “If you want to have enough vaccines to vaccinate all people in the United States who want to be vaccinated (up to 85% of the total population), then you will need more than two companies.”

; Experts, told the Associated Press on Monday.

According to the COVID Tracking Project, the coronavirus caused 1.8 million deaths worldwide, including more than 330,000 in the United States. This is the deadliest month for the outbreak of bird flu in the United States so far. As of December, there have been 65,000 deaths so far. In the past few weeks, the country has repeatedly recorded more than 3,000 deaths every day.

The United States may face a severe winter: Despite warnings to stay at home and avoid other people during Christmas, nearly 1.3 million people passed through US airports on Sunday, since the crisis broke out nine months ago. The highest record in a single day since. .

The Trump administration’s “Operation Warp Speed” is expected to have shipped 20 million doses of Pfizer and Moderna vaccines to states by early January, less than originally estimated What frustrated the states and health officials was that they tried to schedule the shooting.

There is no real-time tracking of how quickly people get the first of the two required doses. As of Monday, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had reported 2.1 million vaccine doses out of 11.4 million doses, but the agency knew that this number was out of date. It may take several days for the vaccine supplier’s report to be posted on the website.

Jenny Bata, a public health officer in Carleton County, Minnesota, said: “Just because the vaccine arrives doesn’t mean we can build an on-site clinic.”

However, on Tuesday, her agency intends to vaccinate 100 emergency medical workers at the emergency clinic, which Bata hopes can become a model for mass vaccination. The nurse will deliver the vaccine to the cars lined up in the snowplow garage owned by the county. Once the driver fires the gun, they will wait in the parking space to ensure that there will be no allergic reactions before going home.

She said: “Vaccinating one person at a time is how we get rid of the effects of this pandemic.”

The battle for vaccines also raises another concern: Will vaccination prevent new variants of the coronavirus from appearing in the UK and may spread more easily? Fauci said that data from the UK indicate that the vaccine will still protect the virus, but it is certain that researchers at the National Institutes of Health will “do very in-depth research on it.”

Look at the front runners in the global vaccine race:

Genetic code vaccine

U.S. studies based on the emergency launch of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines and similar vaccines produced by Moderna and NIH show that they are both approximately 95% effective. Over the weekend, Europe began to use Pfizer vaccine to inject vaccines, and will decide on January 6 whether to increase the Moderna vaccine.

These photos were made using a new technology that injects a genetic code into the spike protein covering the coronavirus. Messenger RNA or mRNA induces the human body to produce some harmless spike proteins, which are enough to make the immune system react when it encounters a real virus in the future.

Both vaccines must be kept frozen, and Pfizer must be injected at ultra-low temperature, which makes it difficult to deliver the vaccine to poor or rural areas.

Other companies, including Germany’s CureVac, are also working to develop their own mRNA drug candidates, and the company has conducted large-scale research in Europe.

Protein vaccine

The manufacturing method of Novavax’s candidate products is unique. It uses what Fauci calls “more reliable and reliable” technology, which requires only ordinary refrigeration. The Maryland-based company breeds harmless copies of the coronavirus spike protein in the laboratory and mixes it with immunity-enhancing chemicals.

Novavax has recruited 15,000 people in a late-stage study of 4,000 in the UK and South Africa. The latest and largest study funded by the U.S. government will recruit volunteers in more than 115 locations in the U.S. and Mexico, and target high-risk seniors and volunteers from black and Hispanic communities hit by the virus.

“We must protect our communities and our people,” said Pastor Peter Johnson, a 75-year-old Dallas civil rights activist who was one of the first volunteers.

Two-thirds of the participants will receive vaccine injections, and the rest will receive virtual injections, which is different from earlier vaccine studies, which provided placebos for half of the volunteers. Novavax research director Dr. Gregory Glenn (Gregory Glenn) said this should help researchers recruit people who suspect they are participating in the study or waiting for their turn to have photos.

For many people, this will be a long wait: Pfizer and Moderna’s filming first targets healthcare workers and nursing home residents, followed by basic workers aged 75 and over.

Dr. Francis Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health, said: “If you want to hedge your bets, for most people who are not among those high-risk groups, the shortest way to get a vaccine is to sign up for a trial.”

Trojan horse vaccine

The next important vaccine news may come from Johnson & Johnson, which aims to produce a single-dose COVID-19 vaccine.

It is made in another way, it uses a harmless virus-a cold virus called adenovirus-to bring the spike gene into the body. In mid-December, Johnson & Johnson completed the final phase of research with approximately 45,000 volunteers in the United States and six other countries. Fauci expects to have preliminary results sometime next month.

In the UK, regulators are also considering removing similar vaccines produced by AstraZeneca and Oxford University.

Shooting tests conducted in the United Kingdom, South Africa and Brazil have shown that these bullets are safe and partially protective-about 70%. However, there are still questions about how the vaccine works in people over 55 years of age and how to explain the results of a small number of people using different doses of the vaccine.

The US research on the AstraZeneca shooting is still recruiting volunteers. Fauci said the researchers hope it will provide clearer answers.

Companies in China and Russia are also producing adenovirus-based vaccines and are beginning to manage them before the final test results appear. Argentina is expected to use the Russian vaccine soon.

“Killer” vaccine

The spike vaccine is not the only option. It is an older method to make vaccines by multiplying the disease-causing virus and then killing it. It allows the body to see the germ itself, not just the single-spin protein.

China has used three “inactivated” COVID-19 vaccines in final tests in some countries, and allowed some people to use them urgently before the results. An Indian company is testing its own inactivated candidates.

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The Associated Press Health and Science Department is supported by the Science Department of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. AP is solely responsible for all content.


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