Paul Sartre Is an astrophysicist State University of New York Stony Brook and the Flatiron Institute, Ask the astronaut with Space radioAnd the author How to die in space.He contributed this article to Space.com Voice of the Experts: Views and Insights.
Astronomers do not understand the origin of the largest celestial body Black hole In the universe. These black holes appeared so early in the cosmological record that we might have to call new physics to explain their appearance.
A new study proposes an interesting origin story: the first black holes did not come from stars, but from clusters of super-exotic, hyper-hypothetical particles called Gravitinos, which successfully survived the initial chaos several years Big explosion.
A bit super
There are black holes, and then there are big black holes. The largest black hole in the universe, appropriately called a “supermassive black hole” (SMBH), is located at the center of almost every galaxy in the universe.even though Galaxy There is a monster with a mass of 4 million solar masses, called Sagittarius A*.
In the modern universe, huge black holes are breathtaking spectacles, but in the past decade, astronomers have revealed the existence of supermassive black holes at dawn of stars and stars. galaxyAt that time, the universe was less than one billion years old.
This is strange, because as far as we know, the only way to form a black hole is through the death of a large number of stars.When they died, the black hole they left was several times larger than before sun. In order to reach a super state, they must merge with other black holes and/or consume as much gas as possible, thus accumulating millions of solar masses.
It takes time. A lot of time.
In the early universe, it took hundreds of millions of years for the stars themselves to appear for the first time.As far as we know, the first generation of stars and galaxies are Supermassive black hole. It seems that there is not enough time for these huge black holes to form through the usual and usual stellar death routes, so something suspicious happened.
We either don’t understand the basic knowledge of the astrophysics of black hole growth (which is entirely possible), or the first huge black hole was actually formed in a more primitive and primitive era. But in order to do this, the physics that created the first black holes that might appear must be… strange.
Picture: The black hole of the universe
How weird well, weird, it is far beyond the current scope of known physics. Fortunately, theoretical physicists work hard every day to go far beyond the current scope of known physics.One such example is called Super symmetryThis is an attempt by physicists to explain some internal working principles of the particle world and predict the existence of new particles.
In super symmetry, Standard model (This name is our current best understanding of the subatomic field) Pair with a partner. The reason for this pairing is the discovery of basic symmetry in the depths of mathematics that may describe nature. But this symmetry is broken (through some complex mechanism forgery), so the supersymmetry partner particles will not only float in the world, they will not stride forward in our particle collider.
On the contrary, due to the destruction of symmetry, the partner particles are forced to have an incredible mass that they can only appear in the most energetic reactions in the universe. So far, in the collider experiments, we have not found any evidence of supersymmetric partner particles, but we are still looking for it.
In the search process, theorists spent a lot of time studying the possibilities of various models and supersymmetry.In one version, there is a particle called Gravitino. The graviton is a supersymmetric pair of gravitons, and the primer itself is an imaginary particle that carries gravity.
If you start to worry that all of this sounds too hypothetical, that’s fine. The existence of gravitino is highly speculative and not based on any existing evidence. However, as we will see soon, certain models of gravitons give them some very special properties that make them mature and can seed the formation of black holes.
If you want to create some black holes in the early universe, you must overcome some challenges. Long before the first stars and galaxies appeared, our universe was dominated by radiation: high-energy light flooded the universe, surfaced around it, and usually told everyone what to do.
If you want to create some random black holes in an era dominated by radiation, you must proceed quickly, because that era in our universe is very chaotic. Once black holes are formed, they must be kept alive.Black holes evaporate through a process called quantum mechanics Hawking radiation, And small black holes (for example, formed through some kind of bizarre subatomic process) can have a huge opportunity to disappear quickly before they disappear, let alone supermassive.
Enter at least one version of gravitino or this hypothetical particle.According to a Recent research articles published in the preprinted journal arXiv, The high-energy early universe could have the correct conditions to fill the universe with gravitons. Because of their unique characteristics (the most striking thing is that they can quickly attract each other under the action of gravity), they can quickly form microscopic black holes.
With the passage of time in the early universe, black holes may become large enough that they can suffer from surrounding radiation before succumbing to Hawking’s evaporation. After the radiation is cleared, they may be large enough to continue to collect matter through normal astrophysical processes, providing the seeds for the first huge black hole.
This is an idea, but in the early universe, this is the best we have.
read more: “Huge graviton and huge primordial black hole“
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